Australian Institute of Criminology

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The forensic analysis of gambling records

Australian Institute of Criminology, Deneen Hernandez
15 November 2005 -

Deneen L Hernandez
Federal Bureau of Investigation, USA


In the United States, the American public wagers approximately $72.8 billion a year on legal gaming (lotteries, commercial gaming, Indian gaming). However, there is also a darker side to gambling in the US that involves clandestine gambling operations. These clandestine operations are bringing in revenue of approximately $680 billion in wagers. Some of these operations involve illicit gambling devices or an illegal sports betting operation which involves various individuals in different levels of management.

This presentation will explore the Federal Bureau of Investigation Cryptanalysis and Racketeering Records Unit's examination process in the identification of suspected clandestine/coded illicit gambling records. The analysis will determine the class characteristics, type and scope of the operation, identify individuals involved, their roles within the operation, and types of wagers and their totals.

About the presenter

Ms Deneen Hernandez has been in law enforcement for approximately 22 years, 10 of which have involved gaming investigation. Ms Hernandez is currently a Supervisory Forensic Examiner for the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory Division in the Cryptanalysis and Racketeering Records Unit at Quantico, Virginia. She examines suspected gambling (bookmaking/gambling devices), money laundering and loan-sharking records and conducts forensic examinations on documents to ascertain if they possess the necessary characteristics indicative of illicit gambling records.

Ms Hernandez also holds certifications as a Forensic Examiner of Illicit Bookmaking Records and Gambling Devices and is also a Certified Instructor with the New York State Department of Criminal Justice Services, Bureau of Municipal Police and New York State Commission of Corrections, respectively. Prior to joining the FBI, Ms Hernandez was employed as a Forensic Examiner/Investigator by the National Indian Gaming Commission in Washington, DC. Since 1988, Ms. Hernandez has also been an Adjunct Professor in undergraduate Criminal Justice and graduate Public Policy studies at a number of academic institutions in the US.