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Chapter 2: Selected crime profiles

Homicide

The definition of homicide used by the ABS is the unlawful killing of another person. Homicide statistics discussed here include the following categories of offences:

  • murder—the wilful killing of a person either intentionally or with reckless indifference to life; and
  • manslaughter—the unlawful killing of a person:
    • without intent to kill, usually as a result of a careless, reckless, or negligent act; or
    • intentionally, but due to extreme provocation; or
    • when in a state of mind that impairs the capacity to understand or control one’s actions.

This reflects categories recorded by police at the time of the homicide and does not necessarily take into account the final outcome of the court case.

Homicide does not include:

  • attempted murder—the attempt to unlawfully kill another person by any means, act or omission; and
  • driving causing death—the unlawful killing of a person without intent to kill, caused through culpable, dangerous or negligent driving.

In 2011, the AIC changed the format of the National Homicide Monitoring Program so that it reports biennially rather than annually. As a result, Australian Crime: Facts & Figures no longer reports information regarding the relationship between offender and victim or long-term trends in firearm-related homicides.

According to the ABS, there were 297 homicides in Australia in 2012, with 1.3 victims per 100,000 population. In 2012, murder accounted for 255 (86%) of the homicide victims recorded. The remaining 42 victims (or 14%) were victims of manslaughter.

Source: References 1

Location of murders

Figure 8 Murder location by type, 2012 (%)

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a: Includes unspecified location

Note: n=242. National data on the location of manslaughter victims (42 victims) cannot be presented here as it was in previous years, due to incompleteness of ABS published data, particularly regarding the breakdown of manslaughter by residential and community locations

  • Just over half of all murders in 2012 occurred in a residential dwelling. The next most common location was the street or footpath, where 16 percent of victims were murdered. Compared with 2011 data, there was an increase in murders reported to have occurred on the streets and a reduction in murders in dwellings.

Source: Reference 1

Victims of murder

Figure 9 Murder victimisation rates by age group and sex, 2012 (per 100,000 population of that age group and sex)

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Note: National data on the age and sex of manslaughter victims (42 victims) cannot be presented here as it was in previous years, due to incompleteness of published data, particularly regarding the breakdown of manslaughter by age categories

  • Due to the relatively small numbers of murders each year, victimisation rates for murder are uniformly small across the age groups. However, both males and females experienced the highest rate of victimisation in the 25–44 year age group; 2.3 and 1.1 per 100,000 respectively.
  • For females, the rate of murder victimisation was less than one per 100,000 of the population in all age categories, except for the 25–44 year age group.
  • For males, the rate of victimisation was less than one per 100,000 for those aged 0–9 years and 10–14 years. The rate of victimisation was 1.5 per 100,000 for males aged 45–64 years and 1.6 per 100,000 population for males aged 15–24 years.

Source: Reference 1

Trend in homicide

Figure 10 Homicide victims, 1993–2012 (n per year)

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  • Since 2010, there has been some increase in homicides.
  • Since 1999, when there was a peak of 344 victims, the number of murder victims has been in decline. The 2012 figure of 255 victims represents a 26 percent decrease in the number of victims of murder compared with 1999.
  • The number of manslaughter victims in Australia has remained at less than 50 per year. The greatest number was recorded in 2002, when there were 48 victims of manslaughter. In 2012, there were 42 victims of manslaughter.

Source: Reference 1

Weapon use

Figure 11 Type of weapon used in murder, 2012 (%)

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Note: n=173. nfd=not further defined. Does not include information from Tasmania or the Australian Capital Territory. Does not include instances where no weapon was used. Data presented in Figure 11 is derived from ABS information regarding use of weapon in the commission of the offence of murder

  • In 2012, 42 percent of all victims of murder were killed by an offender armed with a knife. The second most common weapon used in the commission of a murder was a firearm (25%).
  • Victims were least likely to have been killed by an offender who used a bat/bar/club (8%).

Source: Reference 1

Assault

The ABS defines assault as the direct infliction of force, injury or violence upon a person, including attempts or threats. This definition excludes sexual assault.

The ABS does not provide national data on victims of assault due to differences in business rules, procedures, systems, policies and recording practices between states and territories. In 2011, the ABS updated the way assault information is collected from each of the states and territories. This has resulted in incomplete information being received and data was not available for Queensland, Victoria or Tasmania. This has important ramifications for the number of assaults reported in the current edition of Australian Crime: Facts & Figures. Therefore, any decrease in assault figures should be interpreted with consideration to this change in recording practice.

In 2012, there were 116,103 victims of assault, constituting 969 victims per 100,000 population. This is based on data from New South Wales, South Australia, Western Australia, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory only.

The data for the following charts on the location of incidents and the age and sex of victims of assaults are presented here as an aggregation of ABS data for all Australian states and territories where information was available.

Source: Reference 1 and 2

Location of assault

Figure 12 Assault location by type, 2012 (%)

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a: Administrative/professional, banking, wholesale, warehousing/storage, manufacturing, agricultural and other locations not specified

b: Outbuilding or other residential land

c: Includes educational, health and religious community locations, as well as community locations not specified

Note: n=116,103. Due to changes in ABS recording practice, the data reported do not include Queensland, Victoria or Tasmania

  • In 2012, 50 percent of victims were assaulted in residential locations, followed by 30 percent who were assaulted in community locations.
  • The smallest proportion of victims were assaulted in other (3%) and recreational (5%) locations.

Source: Reference 1

Victims of assault

Figure 13 Assault victims by age group and sex, 2012 (per 100,000 of that age group and sex)

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Note: Due to changes in ABS recording practice, the data reported does not include Queensland, Victoria or Tasmania

  • In 2012, the victimisation rate for assault was highest in the 15–24 year age group for both sexes. The rate was higher for females, who were victimised at a rate of 2,136 per 100,000 population compared with 2,009 per 100,000 for males.
  • Very young children and the elderly had the lowest rate of assault victimisation in 2012. People aged 0–9 years were assaulted at a rate of 133 per 100,000 population, while those aged 65 years and over were victimised at a rate of 174 per 100,000.
  • Males were victimised at a higher rate than females in all age categories except the 15–24 and 25–44 year age groups. The rate of assault victimisation experienced by males aged 10–14 years was 893 per 100,000 population compared with 757 per 100,000 for females. Similarly, for males aged 45–64 the victimisation rate was 746 per 100,000 population, compared with 538 per 100,000 for females.

Source: Reference 1

Assault victim–offender relationship

Figure 14 Assault victims by relationship to offender, 2012 (%)

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a: Includes known non-family member and known but not further defined, which may include some family members

Note: n=92,987. Due to changes in ABS recording practice, the data reported do not include Queensland, Victoria or Tasmania. Further, information regarding relationship to victim was not available for Western Australia

  • Similar proportions of victims were assaulted by ‘known other’ (33%) and family (32%). Twenty-eight percent of victims were assaulted by a stranger.

Source: Reference 1

Figure 15 Assault victims by relationship to offender and sex, 2012 (per 100,000 population)

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a: Includes known non-family member and known but not further defined, which may include some family members

Note: Due to changes in ABS recording practice, the data reported does not include Queensland, Victoria or Tasmania. Further information regarding relationship to victim was not available for Western Australia

  • Males were assaulted by strangers at a much higher rate than females (179 per 100,000 population compared with 54 per 100,000). Conversely, females were victimised by family members at a much higher rate than males (188 per 100,000 population compared with 73 per 100,000).
  • Both sexes were next most commonly victimised by a ‘known other’. For males, the rate was 148 per 100,000 population and for females 124 per 100,000.

Source: Reference 1

Sexual assault

The ABS defines sexual assault as a physical assault of a sexual nature, directed toward another person who:

  • does not give consent, or
  • gives consent as a result of intimidation or fraud; or
  • is legally deemed incapable of giving consent because of youth or incapacity.

In 2012, there were 18,152 recorded sexual assaults, with 80 victims per 100,000 population.

Information pertaining to the relationship between offender and victim of sexual assault (see Figure 18) is an aggregate of ABS data from all available Australian states and territories.

National data on the age and gender of victims of sexual assault cannot be presented here due to incompleteness of published state and territory age data, differences in business rules, procedures, systems, policies and recording practices between states and territories.

Source: Reference 1

Location of sexual assaults

Figure 16 Location of sexual assault, 2012 (%)

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a: Includes unspecified location

Note: n=18,152.

  • The most common location where sexual assaults occurred in 2012 was private dwellings (60%).
  • Similar proportions of sexual assaults occurred in other community and other locations (8% respectively). Seven percent of sexual assaults occurred on the street and footpath.

Source: References 1 and 2

Victims of sexual assault

Figure 17 Age and sex of sexual assault victims, 2012 (rate per 100,000 population)

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  • In 2012, females were consistently victimised at a higher rate than males across all age groups. However, the pattern in sexual assault victimisation was similar for both sexes (peaking in the 10–14 year age group and then declining).
  • For females aged 10–14 years, the rate of sexual assault victimisation was 525 per 100,000 population compared with 94 per 100,000 for males. The rate of victimisation for females aged 15–24 years was 382 per 100,000 population. The rate declined more noticeably in the 25–44 year age group, at 100 per 100,000 population.
  • For males, children under the age of 15 years experienced the highest rate of victimisation. The rate was highest in the 10–14 year age group followed by those aged 0–9 years (63 per 100,000 population).

Source: References 1 and 2

Sexual assault victim–offender relationship

Figure 18 Sexual assault victims by relationship to offender, 2012 (%)

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a: Includes known non-family members and known but not further defined, which may include some family members

Note: n=16,366. Excludes Western Australia (information not available). Also excludes cases where the relationship was not known or stated

  • Sexual assault victims were most commonly victimised by ‘known others’ or family members. Specifically in 2012, 45 percent of all victims were sexually assaulted by a ‘known other’ and 27 percent by a family member.
  • In 2012, strangers accounted for 19 percent of sexual assaults.

Source: Reference 1

Figure 19 Sexual assault victims’ relationship to offender by age of victim, 2012 (%)

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a: Includes known non-family members and known but not further defined, which may include some family members

Note: Excludes Western Australia (information not available)

  • Across all age groups, ‘known other’ was the most common relationship between sexual assault victims and offenders. This ranged from 50 percent of victims aged 20–24 years to 62 percent of victims aged 10–14 years.
  • The proportion of victims who were sexually assaulted by a stranger was highest in the 20–24 year age group (25%). Children aged 0–9 years were least likely to be victimised by a stranger (5%) but were most likely to be victimised by a family member (31%).
  • In 2012, 57 percent of victims aged 15–19 years were sexually assaulted by a ‘known other’, 20 percent by a family member and 16 percent by a stranger.

Source: Reference 1

Robbery

Robbery is defined by the ABS as the unlawful taking of property, without consent, accompanied by force or threat of force. Robbery victims can be persons or organisations.

Types of robbery

Robbery is divided into two categories:

  • armed robbery—robbery conducted with the use of a weapon. A weapon is any object used to cause fear or injury and includes imitation weapons and implied weapons; for example, where a weapon is not seen by the victim but the offender claims to possess one.
  • unarmed robbery—robbery conducted without the use of a weapon.

Of the 13,153 robberies recorded during 2012, 58 percent were unarmed, while 42 percent were committed with some type of weapon.

Source: Reference 1

Location of robberies

Figure 20 Robbery by location type, 2012 (%)

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a: Includes dwellings and other residential locations

b: Includes unspecified locations

Note: n=13,153

  • In 2012, victims were most commonly robbed on the street/footpath (38%) and in retail locations (28%). Only four percent were robbed in other locations and three percent in other community locations.

Source: Reference 1

Victims of robberies

Figure 21 Robbery victims by age group and sex, 2012 (per 100,000 population of that age group and sex)

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  • Males experienced a higher rate of robbery victimisation compared with females across the age spectrum. This was particularly noticeable in the age groups 15–19 years and 20–24 years, where male victimisation was 226 and 190 per 100,000 population respectively.
  • The rate of female victimisation peaked in the 20–24 year age group, slightly later than that of male victims.
  • Victimisation was lowest at either end of the age spectrum. For instance, males and females aged 0–14 years were robbed at a rate of 18 and six per 100,000 population respectively. Similarly, males and females aged 45 years and over were victimised at a rate of 25 and 16 per 100,000 population respectively.

Source: References 1 and 2

Armed robbery

Figure 22 Types of weapons used in armed robbery, 2012 (%)

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a: Includes ‘chemical’ weapon and unspecified type of weapon

Note: n=6,219

  • Knives and other weapons were the most commonly used weapons in armed robbery. In 2012, almost half (47%) of victims were robbed by an offender(s) using a knife, while 25 percent of robberies involved another type of weapon.
  • In 2012, only 18 percent of victims were robbed by an offender armed with a firearm.
  • Weapons least likely to be used during an armed robbery included a bottle/glass (2%) or a syringe (2%).

Source: Reference 1

Unlawful entry with intent

UEWI is defined by the ABS as the unlawful entry of a structure with the intent to commit an offence. UEWI offences include burglary, break and enter, and some theft.

In 2012, there were 214,222 recorded victims of UEWI offences, equating to a rate of 944 per 100,000.

Location of unlawful entry with intent

Figure 23 Location of unlawful entry with intent, 2012 (%)

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a: Includes unspecified location

b: Includes transport, the street and footpath, and other community locations

Note: n=214,223

  • In 2012, the greatest proportion of victims of UEWI were victimised in residential dwellings (62%). Eleven percent were victimised in a retail location, while 10 percent were victimised in other locations.
  • UEWI victimisation was least likely to occur in recreational locations (3%).

Source: Reference 1

Motor vehicle theft

MVT involves the taking of a motor vehicle unlawfully or without permission. It excludes damaging, tampering with or interfering with motor vehicles. The theft of motor vehicle parts or contents is included under the offence category of ‘other theft’. Motor vehicle is defined as cars, motorcycles, campervans, trucks, buses and plant/equipment vehicles.

In 2012, according to the ABS, there were 58,483 motor vehicles reported stolen to police, with 349 vehicles stolen per 100,000 registered vehicles.

Source: References 1 and 3

Location of motor vehicle theft

Figure 24 Location of motor vehicle thefts, 2012 (%)

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a: Includes unspecified location

b: Includes dwellings and other residential locations

c: Includes public car parks

Note: n=58,483

  • Forty-five percent of MVTs occurred at a residential location, followed by 32 percent that occurred on the street/footpath.
  • In 2012, recreation (1%) and other community (2%) locations were less likely to have been the location for MVT.

Source: Reference 1

Recovery rates

This section presents data on recovery rates of stolen vehicles from the National Comprehensive Auto–theft Research System (CARS) Project. CARS classify MVTs in two ways. Vehicles that are recovered are classified as short-term thefts and are primarily used for opportunistic purposes. Vehicles that are not recovered are classified as profit-motivated thefts. In these instances, offenders on-sell the car, either as a whole vehicle or in separated parts (Reference 3).

In 2012, 42,296 thefts were classified as short term. This equates to a national recovery rate for stolen vehicles of 71 percent.

Source: Reference 4

Figure 25 Short-term and profit-motivated motor vehicles thefts, 2005–06 to 2011–12 (n)

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  • For the past seven years, a significant number of stolen motor vehicles have been recovered.
  • The number of short-term MVTs increased for the first time since data was collected in 2005–06. There were 40,244 short-term MVTs in 2010–11 compared with 42,296 in 2011–12; an increase of five percent. Generally, the number of short-term MVTs has been declining since 2005–06.
  • The number of profit-motivated thefts increased by six percent between 2010–11 and 2011–12; from 16,541 to 17,578 thefts.

Source: Reference 4

Theft and recovery by vehicle type

Figure 26 Short-term and profit-motivated motor vehicle thefts by type of vehicle, 2011–12 (%)

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a: Includes small, medium, large and unknown passenger vehicles

b: Includes motor homes

c: Includes heavy plant and equipment and unknown heavy vehicles

  • In 2011–12, the category of vehicle with the most number of cars stolen was passenger vehicles. Specifically, 32,243 were stolen, while 25,234 (78%) were recovered. Only 22 percent of passenger vehicle thefts were considered profit motivated.
  • The greatest proportion of profit-motivated thefts involved other heavy vehicles. Specifically, of the 784 other heavy vehicles stolen in 2011–12, only 299 were recovered (43%).
  • Motorcycles and other heavy vehicles were the only categories of vehicles where a greater proportion of thefts were not recovered compared with those that were.

Source: Reference 4

Other theft

The ABS defines other theft as the taking of another person’s property with the intention of permanently depriving the owner of the property illegally and without permission, but without force, threat of force, use of coercive measures, deceit or having gained unlawful entry to any structure even if the intent was to commit theft.

This offence includes such crimes as pick pocketing, bag snatching, stealing (including shoplifting), theft from a motor vehicle, theft of motor vehicle parts/accessories or petrol, theft of stock/domestic animals and theft of non-motorised vehicles/boats/aircraft/bicycles. It is the largest of all the crime categories included in the national statistics.

There were 496,527 victims of other theft in 2012—a rate of 2,189 per 100,000 population.

Source: Reference 1

Location of other theft

Figure 27 Location of other thefts, 2012 (%)

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a: Includes unspecified location

Note: n=496,527

  • Thirty-five percent of all victims of other theft were victimised in retail locations in 2012. A further 19 percent were victimised in outbuilding/other residential lands.
  • Only four percent of victims were victimised in recreational settings, while five percent were victimised in other community locations.

Source: Reference 1

Fraud and deception-related crime

This section presents data extracted from information published by state and territory police agencies, as well as the Australian Payments Clearing Association (APCA). Police agencies’ classifications of fraud and deception-related offences include cheque and credit card fraud, fraudulent trade practices, social security fraud, forgery, counterfeiting, bribery and other deception offences. Precise definitions may vary by state/territory.

Police record fraud offences by financial year. Fraud is believed to be one of the most under-reported offences, with fewer than 50 percent of incidents being reported to police or other authorities (Reference 27).

In 2011–12, Tasmania Police amended their counting rules for the category of Fraud and Similar Offences from offence (transaction)-based counting to victim-based counting (Reference 5).

Table 5 Reported fraud offences, 1995–96 to 2011–12 (rate per 100,000 population)
Year Rate
1995–96 500
1996–97 547
1997–98 585
1998–99 593
1999–2000 586
2000–01 547
2001–02 555
2002–03 485
2003–04 512
2004–05 539
2005–06 491
2006–07 455
2007–08 438
2008–09 432
2009–10 391
2010–11 380
2011–12 430
  • The rate of reported fraud offences was 430 per 100,000 population in 2011–12, an increase of 13 percent from 2010–11, but an overall decrease of 27 percent from the peak rate of reported fraud in 1998–99.
  • The rate of reported fraud offences in 2011–12 was the first observed increase since 2004–05, but may reflect changes to counting rules rather than an increase in reported offences.

Source: References 2 and 5–12

This section presents data on rates of fraud on transactions from the APCA. The APCA coordinates and manages payments clearing systems in Australia including cheques, direct debit and credit payments, EFTPOS and ATM, high value and bulk cash.

Figure 28 Fraud per $1,000 transacted by payment type, 2006–12

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  • Overall, fraud committed on credit and charge cards has increased since 2006, increasing from 37.93 cents per $1,000 transacted in 2006 to 79.26 cents per $1,000 transacted in 2012. However, fraud committed on credit and charge cards decreased by 17 percent between 2011 and 2012—a decrease of 16.78 cents per $1,000 transacted.
  • Fraud committed through the use of cheques and fraud on debit cards increased in 2012. Specifically, fraud via cheques increased from 0.69 cents per $1,000 to 0.81 cents, while fraud on debit cards increased from 4.87 cents per $1,000 to 5.44 cents.

Source: Reference 13

Federal charges

The Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions (CDPP) publishes annual statistics on summary and indictable fraud offences against Commonwealth law that were dealt with in the preceding year. Prior years have presented the statistics as charges dealt with against Commonwealth Acts and Regulations, specifically the Criminal Code Act 1995 and the Crimes Act 1914.

In 2008–09, the CDPP reviewed the way it calculated the number of charges and defendants dealt with. As a result, figures reported in the current edition are not directly comparable to those published in preceding years.

Source: Reference 14

Table 6 Defendants dealt with by CDPP by most common referring Commonwealth agency, 2011–12
Referring agency Defendants (n) Percent of total
Summary
Centrelink 1,461 55
Australian Federal Police 413 16
Insolvency and Trustee Service, Australia 204 8
Other Commonwealth agenciesa 568 21
Total 2,646 100
Indictable
Australian Federal Police 657 67
Non-Commonwealth agenciesb 149 15
Australian Customs & Border Protection Service 66 7
Other Commonwealth agenciesa 105 11
Total 977 100

a: Includes the 35 other agencies that referred matters of fraud to the CDPP in 2011–12

b: Includes state or territory police

  • Centrelink was the most common referring agency for summary offences in 2011–12, referring a total of 1,461 defendants. This accounted for 55 percent of all summary defendants referred.
  • Conversely, the Australian Federal Police (AFP) referred 67 percent of all indictable defendants—657 in total. Non–Commonwealth agencies were the next most common referring agency for indictable defendants, referring 15 percent of defendants in 2011–12.

Source: Reference 14

Drug arrests

This section provides an overview of drug arrest patterns for offenders from 1996–97 to 2011–12 as collated by the Australian Crime Commission in its Illicit Drug Data Report series. Drug offences usually come to the attention of police either through specific activity in drug law enforcement or coincidentally through an investigation into another matter, often related to property offences.

Arrest information is provided for the following types of drugs:

  • cannabis;
  • heroin (and other opioids);
  • amphetamines (including methamphetamine and phenethylamines);
  • cocaine; and
  • other drugs (hallucinogens, steroids and drugs not defined elsewhere).

Cannabis arrests include expiation notices, drug infringement notices and simple cannabis offence notices.

Offenders involved in drug arrests are divided into two categories:

  • consumers—persons charged with user offences (eg possessing or administering drugs for own personal use); and
  • providers—persons charged with supply offences (eg importation, trafficking, selling, cultivation, manufacture).

In the case of a person being charged with consumer and provider offences, the provider charge takes precedence and the person is counted only as a provider of that drug. A person charged with multiple drug offences is counted as a consumer or provider of each drug type.

Figure 29 Drug arrests by type of drug, 1996–97 to 2011–12 (n per year)

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a: Includes hallucinogens, steroids and other drugs (not defined elsewhere)

  • The number of amphetamine arrests peaked in 2011–12 at 16,828. The 2011–12 figure represented a 30 percent increase on the previous year and an overall increase since 1996–97.
  • Cannabis has accounted for the highest volume of drug arrests since 1996–97. In 2011–12, there were 61,011 drug arrests involving cannabis. This figure was a 12 percent decrease on that recorded in 1996–97. However, since 2007–08, the number of cannabis-related arrests has been increasing by approximately three percent per year.
  • The number of cocaine arrests peaked in 2009–10 at 1,244. The 2011–12 figure (n=995) represented a 19 percent increase on the previous year.
  • Between 1998–99 and 2001–02, the number of heroin-related drug arrests decreased from 14,341 to 3,259—a total percentage decrease of 77 percent. In 2011–12, there were 2,714 heroin-related arrests.
  • In 2011–12, the number of arrests related to other drugs increased. In the last five years, other drug-related arrests increased from 7,215 to 11,600—an increase of 61 percent.

Source: Reference 15

Figure 30 Consumer/provider status of drug arrestees by type of drug, 2011–12 (%)

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a: Includes hallucinogens, steroids and other drugs (not defined elsewhere)

Note: Does not include cases where consumer or provider status was unknown

  • The proportion of drug arrestees who were consumers was greater than the proportions who were providers across all drug types. This ranged from 66 percent for heroin to 86 percent for cannabis.

Source: Reference 15

Figure 31 Drug consumers by sex and type of drug, 2011–12 (%)

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a: Includes hallucinogens, steroids, and other drugs (not defined elsewhere)

  • Males were more often identified as drug consumers than females across all drug categories.
  • The representation of females as drug consumers ranged from 13 percent arrested for cocaine to 23 percent for other drugs.

Source: Reference 15

Figure 32 Sex of arrested drug providers by type of drug, 2011–12 (%)

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a: Includes hallucinogens, steroids, and other drugs (not defined elsewhere)

  • Males were more commonly arrested for the provision of drugs than females across all drug categories. The proportion was greatest for cocaine (90%), followed by amphetamines (83%) and cannabis (81%).

Source: Reference 15