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Technical appendix

National Armed Robbery Monitoring Program glossary

Armed robbery—the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) delineates between armed robbery (involving a weapon) and unarmed robbery (no weapon used). Only armed robbery is of relevance to NARMP. Also see Robbery below.

Actual offences that can be classified as armed robbery differ between Australian jurisdictions because of differing criminal codes and legal definitions. The coding scheme employed by the ABS, the Australian and New Zealand Standard Offence Classification (ANZSOC: ABS 2011b), allows varying offences to be grouped into categories. Those categories of relevance to NARMP are aggravated robbery, non-aggravated robbery and robbery not further defined.

Weapon use is central to establishing which offences are included in NARMP. For the purposes of NARMP, a weapon is broadly defined in accordance with the ABS definition (see Weapon below).

Incident—the ABS defined a criminal incident as:

one or more offences (and their related victims and offenders) that are grouped into the same unique occurrence if they are committed by the same person or group of persons and if:

  • they are part of actions committed simultaneously or in sequence over a short period of time at the same place
  • they are part of interrelated actions; that is, where one action leads to the other or where one is the consequence of the other(s)
  • they involve the same action(s) repeated over a long period of time against the same victim(s) and come to the attention of the police at one point in time. (ABS 2005: np)

The same broad definition of an incident has been used in the compilation of NARMP, with the following exclusions:

  • incidents where different victims (sometimes threatened with different weapons or in different locations) are robbed by the same offender(s) within a short period of time; or
  • repeat victimisations of the same individual(s) or organisation(s) by the same offender(s), with long periods intervening between the armed robberies.

Location—‘The initial site where an offence occurred, determined on the basis of its use or function’ (ABS 2012a: np). For the purposes of NARMP, broad location categories include:

  • residential—private and commercial residences, includes yards and external structures;
  • recreational—includes sporting facilities but excludes premises explicitly flagged as retail or licensed;
  • Transport-related location—bus stops and train stations, car parks associated with these terminals and conveyances eg buses, trains, taxis and private vehicles;
  • open spaces (excluding street and footpath);
  • street and footpath;
  • educational, health, religious, justice and other community locations;
  • administrative and professional settings;
  • wholesalers, warehouses, manufacturing and agricultural location;
  • retail, which includes shopping centres, jewellers, pawn shops, gambling locations (not also flagged as licensed premises), other retail locations not further defined and excludes all retail premises included in the following categories:
    • banking and financial—includes automatic teller machines not attached to banking and financial premises;
    • pharmacies and chemists;
    • service stations;
    • licensed premises—includes licensed clubs, pubs, taverns, nightclubs and bottle shops;
    • newsagents;
    • post offices;
    • corner stores, convenience stores and supermarkets;
    • takeaways and fast food outlets; and
  • unspecified and others not classified elsewhere.

Offender—the terms offender(s) and armed robber(s) are used interchangeably to refer to alleged perpetrators of armed robbery offences, even if those individuals have not been convicted of those offences.

Robbery—consistent with the ABS definition, robbery involves:

the unlawful taking of property, with intent to permanently deprive the owner of the property, from the immediate possession of a person, or an organisation, or control, custody or care of a person, accompanied by the use, and/or threatened use of immediate force or violence (ABS 2012a: np).

Victim—also consistent with the ABS, a robbery victim:

may be either an individual person or an organisation. Where the robbery involves an organisation or business, the element of property ownership is the key to determining the number and type of robbery victims. If the robbery only involves property belonging to an organisation, then one victim (ie the organisation) is counted regardless of the number of employees from which the property is taken. However, if robbery of an organisation also involves personal property in an employee’s custody, then both the organisation and employee(s) are counted as victims (ABS 2012a: np).

A person traumatised by, or witness to, a robbery and whose property is not targeted, although a victim in the broader, common sense use of the term, is not a victim for the purposes of NARMP. In addition, the term victim is used throughout this report to refer to the person(s) or organisation(s) victimised in an alleged armed robbery, regardless of whether related offences were later proven.

Generally, victim records are included in NARMP if actual offences were subsumed by any of those ANZSOC categories listed for armed robbery (see above) and some form of weapon use was also recorded, although there are some exceptions. Victim records are excluded if offences:

  • are classified as aggravated robbery but weapon information shows no weapon use or not applicable (the use of a weapon in the commission of a robbery is considered one, although not the only aggravating circumstance, hence all offences involving weapons could technically be considered aggravated); or
  • are classified as robbery not further defined or non-aggravated robbery, recorded with no weapon use, or where weapon information has not been supplied or is annotated as missing. A minority of victim records classified as non-aggravated robbery or robbery not further defined also recorded use of a weapon and these are retained.

Finally, also consistent with the ABS:

Where a victim is subjected to multiple offences of the same type within a distinct criminal incident, eg in the case of robbery this may be due to attacks by several offenders, the victim is counted only once (ABS 2005: np).

Weapon—as per the ABS definition, a weapon is:

any object that can be used to cause injury or fear of injury. It also includes imitation weapons and implied weapons (eg where a weapon is not seen by the victim but the offender claims to possess one). Parts of the body such as fists or feet are not included (ABS 2012a: np).

The broad categories of weapon considered in NARMP generally tally with ABS categories, namely:

  • firearm, including imitation firearms;
  • knife;
  • syringe; and
  • other weapon, includes axe, sledgehammer, crowbar/metal pipe, stun gun, sword, tools, drug, vehicle, bow, spear, rock, blunt instruments and other weapons not further defined, and which subsumes ABS categories (see ABS 2012a) of:
    • bottle/glass;
    • bat/bar/club; and
    • chemical.

There are minor differences between broad NARMP and ABS weapon categories. For example, NARMP categorises a screwdriver as a knife (the ABS classify it as ‘other weapon’).

National Armed Robbery Monitoring Program data collection method

Police services in all Australian jurisdictions (ie New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania, Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory) extract from police administrative information systems, unit record data relating to victims of armed robberies reported during the reference period. Electronic data files from each of the jurisdictions are forwarded to the AIC, where they are reformatted and recoded as necessary to achieve, as far as is possible, a uniform national victim dataset. The final victim dataset is contained and analysed within STATA, a statistical software package.

Jurisdictions cannot extract identical variables in all instances, nor can they always extract equivalent levels of detail or equivalent values for those variables that are produced in common. Raw data undergo considerable recoding and reformatting, and the creation of new variables from supplied raw data where necessary, before being submitted to analyses. Table 7 details the core variables, the number of valid records for each and where relevant, the categories within each variable employed in the victim analyses conducted for this report.

The incident-based data file is created from victim records; victim records are combined into a single, incident record using the shared incident identifier supplied by jurisdictions. Incident information such as location, weapon use and incident time and date did not agree among all the victims associated with an incident in a small minority of cases. When victim information differed on only a single variable, the relevant variable in victim records was amended to show consistent information (eg incident time amended to show the earliest incident time).

A small number of victim records could be grouped into single incidents by police incident identifiers but were disaggregated into separate incidents for the purposes of NARMP. This occurred when:

  • different victims were robbed by the same offender(s) and so grouped as a single incident but detailed examination showed that they were threatened with different weapons or in different locations or at different times; or
  • the same individual(s) or organisation(s) were repeatedly victimised (sometimes by the same offenders) and so grouped together, but detail showed there were long periods intervening between the armed robberies.

National Armed Robbery Monitoring Program 2009 and 2010 datasets

As indicated in Table 7, a total of 12,005 valid victim files relating to the calendar years 2009 and 2010 were examined in this report. After grouping these victim records, there were 10,409 incident records in the incident-based file.

Data limitations

Reported findings

Care should be taken in drawing strict or detailed comparisons between different recorded crime sources (such as RCV and NARMP) or even between initial and later NARMP reports because of the evolving nature of NARMP. Comparisons drawn with earlier annual reports are based on observed trends and are not accompanied by statistical tests of significance. None of the annual comparisons have been subjected to any time series analyses. Related findings concerning recent armed robberies are based on observed trends and/or differences and are not accompanied by statistical tests of significance.

Jurisdictional consistency

What constitutes a single reported crime victim is not uniform across jurisdictions. With respect to the ABS RCV, it has been noted that:

Some jurisdictions almost always record a reported criminal incident on their crime recording system, whereas other jurisdictions apply a threshold test prior to a record being made (eg whether the victim wishes to proceed against the offender or the seriousness of the incident). These thresholds varied across jurisdictions and were not guided by national standards (ABS 2012a: np).

A National Crime Recording Standard has been developed by the ABS but it is additionally noted that

While the application of rules and requirements of the NCRS was designed to enable the recording of crime in a comparable manner across all jurisdictions, there is some variability in the interpretation of the rules, in particular the rule which guides what is recorded on police systems when an incident is reported to police (ABS 2012a: np).

Given that NARMP data are extracted by police services using similar protocols to those employed for RCV, issues raised concerning RCV (ABS 2012a) are directly relevant to the compilation of NARMP.

The overarching ANZSOC scheme (ABS 2011b) allows the grouping of disparate offences across Australian jurisdictions. Nonetheless, offences are not defined identically in all states and territories. Other variables are also inconsistently defined (eg raw values relating to relationships between victims and offenders) and so although they can be collapsed into higher level categories such as those employed in RCV, these categories do not necessarily convey all the information available.

Given all factors, jurisdictional comparisons are not made in this report but jurisdictional information is available to relevant police staff within jurisdictions via a secure internet website.

Representativeness of victim and offender records in the National Armed Robbery Monitoring Program

Not all crime events that take place are reported to, or detected by, police. This means NARMP cannot describe armed robberies and armed robbery victims that do not come to police attention. Not all armed robberies will result in the apprehension of offenders and logically, police data can only include information regarding offenders who have been apprehended and will exclude those who have, for whatever reason, avoided detection. Systematic factors may influence a victim’s decision not to report crime; recorded crime as reported to police generally underestimates the level of victimisation compared with that reported in victim surveys (although this is thought to be less pronounced with armed robbery relative to other types of offences). Systematic factors may also influence whether offenders avoid apprehension, or if apprehended, are not proceeded against. These systematic factors are important in the understanding of armed robbery, but are well beyond the scope of NARMP.

Victim counts for 2009 and 2010 do not precisely tally with those provided in RCV for these years (ABS 2011c, 2010b), reflecting slight difference between the data collections in extraction protocols and timing, and inclusion criteria. For the purposes of NARMP and RCV, robbery victims are those persons or organisations whose property was the target of an attack. By definition, organisations can only be involved in a robbery through property ownership. A person traumatised by, or witness to, a robbery but whose property is not targeted, although a victim in the broader, common sense use of the term, is not a victim for recorded crime purposes. In previous reports, it appears that some individual persons who were witness to and/or traumatised (but not actually the owners of targeted property) in the robberies of organisations may have been incorporated in the dataset. To overcome this, all individual victims reported as additionally involved in an incident in which an organisation was robbed of property and who were flagged as having only traumatic (as opposed to a financial) involvement in the incident were excluded from the datasets from the year 2006 onwards for the purposes of this report. A number of these exclusions may be valid victims who did have property removed but as no means were available to distinguish this, the conservative rule described above was applied.

Some jurisdictions were able to supply information about whether included victims were subject to completed or to attempted armed robberies. As these data were not available for all records, this variable was not examined for this report. Some aspects of robbery, victim or offender may differentiate completed from attempted robberies, but these are not explored in this report.

The investigative status (or outcome) variable initially contained information very similar to that reported in RCV (ie outcome at 30, 90 or 180 days). In order to achieve greater precision, some jurisdictions are able now to supply information about investigative outcomes at the time of data extraction, plus the dates those outcomes were achieved. These cannot be supplied by all states and territories, however, which means the precise time taken to achieve the various possible outcomes has not been calculated. Consequently, the outcomes reported were not necessarily achieved within the same timeframe for each record (ie the time between incident report and outcome achieved varies between records). In a related fashion, the number of jurisdictions able to supply this information and the form it is provided in (ABS coding versus raw, local codes) has changed since the establishment of NARMP. Summary findings making use of this variable should therefore be interpreted with caution and treated as only the most general indicator of outcome.

Data extraction protocols employed in some jurisdictions can result in the duplication of victim records (ie victim records are supplied multiple times with few or even no differences between those records). All detected duplicate records were removed from the victim dataset but in some instances, it was not possible to definitively confirm all apparent duplications (for instance, when the victim was an organisation robbed in a retail setting). As a result, it is possible that the dataset contains some duplicate victim records.

Finally, this report provides some information on repeat victimisation during the reference period. However, it is likely that this is an underestimate of actual repeat victimisations reported to police in Australia. The non-name victim identifiers provided to the AIC by some jurisdictions are not unique and universal to all states and territories. That is, they identify a victim in a particular incident but if that same individual or organisation is victim to another incident, a new identifier will be allocated. If a victim is subject to second or subsequent armed robbery in a different jurisdiction to that in which the first occurred, they cannot be identified as a repeat victim. Because of the above, the analyses presented should therefore be considered at best as only broadly indicative of all attempted and completed armed robberies, all armed robbery offenders and all armed robbery victims.

Weapons, property, offenders, relationships and victim injury described in the National Armed Robbery Monitoring Program

Where possible and relevant, jurisdictions supply information concerning up to three weapons used against victims, up to five involved offenders, up to five relationships between victim and offenders, and up to five stolen property types and values. These do add to knowledge of armed robbery by providing greater detail about the crime but should not be seen as definitive regarding every reported instance of armed robbery. Some jurisdictions cannot supply any information and others cannot supply information concerning more than one of each of these elements. Records that may involve more than the maximum number of each of these elements (eg more than 5 items of property or more than 3 weapons) are not flagged as such in the national dataset. This means that the true total reported number of weapons employed, offenders involved, or types of property stolen cannot be established.

Variables relating to the type and dollar value of stolen items cannot be supplied by all jurisdictions. These variables are not mandatory fields for police officers when recording offence reports. Further, their accuracy is not necessarily later validated by police. Data do not, therefore, accurately describe the types and value of all property taken in all examined incidents. This caveat is especially important when considering certain subcategories of robbery, for which only single or a very small number of records were examined.

Information concerning injuries sustained during the course of an armed robbery cannot be supplied by all jurisdictions therefore, not all victim injuries are captured in the available data. Furthermore, victim injury is only examined for individual (ie person victims) and so this variable cannot capture any injuries sustained by employees or representatives of organisational victims who were not themselves victims (ie individuals who did not have personal property stolen).

Changes to the National Armed Robbery Monitoring Program over time

As noted in the introduction to this report, as NARMP has evolved, the nature of NARMP information has also changed, making fine-grained comparisons with earlier NARMP reports inappropriate. Some changes have arisen directly from stakeholder feedback and others are the result of changes in the ways states and territories compile information. Changes include:

  • the inclusion of more detailed information in raw data forwarded to the AIC (eg weapon type or location);
  • the inclusion of additional variables to those initially specified (eg a flag variable indicating whether or not a location was a licensed premise);
  • the supply of information that previously could not be supplied, by more or all jurisdictions (eg unique offence identifier); and
  • changes in the way some variables are derived. For example, analyses of weapon type in combination with other variables in 2003 and 2004 annual reports were usually based on the first-listed weapon. Analyses from the 2005 and subsequent reports employ the most serious weapon listed for that victim (or the first-listed victim in an incident).
Table 8 Valid records for variables and values of variables, in the 2009 and 2010 NARMP victim files (n)
Valid records
Variable description 2009 2010 Total Values
Offence code 6,274 5,731 12,005

Aggravated robbery

Non-aggravated robbery

Robbery not further defined

Organisational identifier flag 6,265 5,714 11,979

Individual victim

Organisational victim

Victim age at incident 4,443 4,104 8,547
Victim date of birth 3,993 3,627 7,620
Victim gender 4,460 4,117 8,577
Relationship of first listed offender to victim 1,813 2,369 4,182

Known to victim

Unknown to victim

No offender identified

Relationship of second listed offender to victim 186 863 1,049

Known to victim

Unknown to victim

No offender identified

Relationship of fifth listed offender to victim 7 759 766

Known to victim

Unknown to victim

No offender identified

Injury to victim 1,128 1,137 2,265

No injury noted

Injury not further defined

Minor injury

Major injury

Death

Emotional trauma

Unique incident reference number 6,274 5,731 12,005
Date incident reported 6,273 5,731 12,004
Date incident occurred/started 6,274 5,731 12,005
Month incident occurred 6,274 5,731 12,005
Year incident occurred 6,274 5,731 12,005
Day of week on which incident occurred 6,274 5,731 12,005
Time of day when incident occurred/started 6,267 5,731 11,998
Date incident ended 4,099 3,813 7,912
Time incident ended 4,099 3,813 7,912
Location where armed robbery occurred 6,274 5,719 11,993

Residential settings

Recreational settings (excluding licensed premises)

Transport related settings

Open spaces (excluding street and footpath)

Street and footpath

Educational, health, religious, justice and other community settings

Administrative and professional settings

Wholesalers, warehouses, manufacturing and agricultural settings

Retail (including not further defined and not elsewhere classified)

Banking and financial settings

Pharmacies and chemists

Service stations

Licensed premises

Newsagents

Post offices

Corner stores, supermarkets and convenience stores

Takeaways and fast food outlets

Unspecified and other locations not classified elsewhere

Licensed premises flag 6,224 5,691 11,915

Licensed premises

Premises not licensed

First listed weapon used in incident 6,257 5,666 11,923

Firearm

Knife

Syringe

Other weapon

Second listed weapon used in incident 793 732 1,525

Firearm

Knife

Syringe

Other weapon

Third listed weapon used in incident 76 100 176

Firearm

Knife

Syringe

Other weapon

Date of incident clearance 3,049 2,896 5,945
Investigation outcome/clearance status at data extraction/at 180 days 6,212 5,677 11,889

Not finalised

Finalised, no offender proceeded against

Finalised, offender proceeded against

Other outcome

Property taken incident, first type listed 2,304 3,274 5,578

No property stolen

Cash

Negotiable documents

Identity documents

Luggage

Personal electrical equipment (including mobile phones)

Jewellery

Alcohol and other drugs

Weapons

Personal items not classified elsewhere

Conveyances and accessories

Other property not classified elsewhere

Property taken incident, second type listed 1,373 1,296 2,669

Cash

Negotiable documents

Identity documents

Luggage

Personal electrical equipment (including mobile phones)

Jewellery

Alcohol and other drugs

Weapons

Personal items not classified elsewhere

Conveyances and accessories

Other property not classified elsewhere

Property taken incident, third type listed 954 886 1,840

Cash

Negotiable documents

Identity documents

Luggage

Personal electrical equipment (including mobile phones)

Jewellery

Alcohol and other drugs

Weapons

Personal items not classified elsewhere

Conveyances and accessories

Other property not classified elsewhere

Property taken incident, fourth type listed 756 607 1,363

Cash

Negotiable documents

Identity documents

Luggage

Personal electrical equipment (including mobile phones)

Jewellery

Alcohol and other drugs

Weapons

Personal items not classified elsewhere

Conveyances and accessories

Other property not classified elsewhere

Property taken incident, fifth type listed 600 461 1,061

Cash

Negotiable documents

Identity documents

Luggage

Personal electrical equipment (including mobile phones)

Jewellery

Alcohol and other drugs

Weapons

Personal items not classified elsewhere

Conveyances and accessories

Other property not classified elsewhere

Value of property taken in incident, first property type listed 896 869 1,765
Value of property taken in incident, second property type listed 629 609 1,238
Value of property taken in incident, third property type listed 521 513 1,034
Value of property taken in incident, fourth property type listed 469 465 934
Value of property taken in incident, fifth property type listed 391 376 767
Total value of property stolen incident 1,367 1,276 2,643
Unique reference number for first listed offender 6,274 2,293 8,567
Unique reference number for second listed offender 6,274 835 7,109
Unique reference number for third listed offender 6,274 316 6,590
Unique reference number for fourth listed offender 6,274 102 6,376
Unique reference number for fifth listed offender 6,274 33 6,307
Age of first listed offender at time of incident 2,500 2,294 4,794
Age of second listed offender at time of incident 980 834 1,814
Age of third listed offender at time of incident 373 316 689
Age of fourth listed offender at time of incident 174 102 276
Age of fifth listed offender at time of incident 65 33 98
Date of birth, first listed offender 2,499 2,293 4,792
Date of birth, second listed offender 978 835 1,813
Date of birth, third listed offender 372 316 688
Date of birth, fourth listed offender 174 102 276
Date of birth, fifth listed offender 65 33 98
Gender, first listed offender 2,504 2,294 4,798
Gender, second listed offender 981 835 1,816
Gender, third listed offender 373 316 689
Gender, fourth listed offender 174 102 276
Gender, fifth listed offender 65 33 98

Source: AIC NARMP victims 2003–10 [computer file]

Table 9 Victim type, 2009 and 2010
2009 2010 Total
Individual person 4,460 4,119 8,579
Organisational victim 1,804 1,594 3,398
Other 1 1 2
Missing 9 17 26
Total 6,274 5,731 12,005

Source: AIC NARMP victims 2003–10 [computer file]

Table 10 Victim gender, 2009 and 2010
2009 2010 Total
Male 3,434 3,183 6,617
Female 1,017 920 1,937
Unknown 9 14 23
Missing 0 2 2
Total 4,460 4,119 8,579

Note: Excludes victim cases not flagged as individuals

Source: AIC NARMP victims 2003–10 [computer file]

Table 11 Victim age group, 2009 and 2010
Age group (yrs) 2009 2010 Total
Under 15 167 141 308
15–19 943 837 1,780
20–24 1,002 919 1,921
25–29 705 642 1,347
30–34 352 366 718
35–39 277 301 578
40–44 224 211 435
45–49 257 225 482
50–54 196 180 376
55–59 141 115 256
60–64 81 91 172
65 and over 98 76 174
Missing 17 15 32
Total 4,460 4,119 8,579

Source: AIC NARMP victims 2003–10 [computer file]

Table 12 Relationship of victim and offender, 2009 and 2010
Relationship type 2009 2010 Total
Known to victim, not further defined 16 25 41
Family member, not further defined 9 6 15
Partner, spouse, de facto 6 4 10
Ex-partners 8 6 14
Sibling 0 1 1
Child 4 0 4
Other related family member, not classified elsewhere 3 5 8
Non family member, not further defined 1 1 2
Friend, including boyfriend/girlfriend 6 7 13
Acquaintance 129 89 218
Professional relationship, excluding employment 15 12 27
Known via employment 2 5 7
Housemate, boarder 2 0 2
Neighbour 1 2 3
Criminal associate 5 6 11
Other non-family member, not classified elsewhere 3 8 11
Total known to victim 210 177 387
Unknown to victim 1,892 1,557 3,449
Total 2,102 1,734 3,836

Note: Victims can be threatened by more than 1 offender therefore total exceeds number of victims

Source: AIC NARMP victims 2003–10 [computer file]

Table 13 Victim injury, 2009 and 2010
Injury 2009 2010 Total
‘No injury’ noted, not applicable 366 412 778
Emotional trauma 323 355 678
Minor injury 229 184 413
Serious injury 37 34 71
Death 0 1 1
Total 955 986 1,941

Source: AIC NARMP victims 2003–10 [computer file]

Table 14 Most serious weapon used in armed robbery incidents, 2009 and 2010
Weapon type 2009 2010 Total
Firearm 799 825 1,624
Knife 2,742 2,572 5,314
Syringe 144 133 277
Other weapon 1,279 1,058 2,337
Not specified 423 434 857
Total 5,387 5,022 10,409

Source: AIC NARMP incidents 2004–10 [computer file]

Table 15 Location of armed robbery incidents, 2009 and 2010
Location type 2009 2010 Total
Residential 386 420 806
Educational, community 54 56 110
Transport related 347 346 693
Open spaces 48 42 90
Street, footpath 1,779 1,648 3,427
Admin, professional 21 14 35
Banking, financial 61 50 111
Retail 946 797 1,743
Pharmacies 137 101 238
Service stations 411 385 796
Wholesalers, warehouses 14 7 21
Recreational 220 210 430
Licensed premises 335 370 705
Corner/convenience stores 268 239 507
Newsagents 68 43 111
Post offices 20 20 40
Takeaways 156 155 311
Unspecified, other 116 108 224
Missing 0 11 11
Total incidents 5,387 5,022 10,409

Source: AIC NARMP incidents 2004–10 [computer file]

Table 16 Day of the week of armed robbery incidents, 2009 and 2010
2009 2010 Total
Sunday 873 848 1,721
Monday 744 731 1,475
Tuesday 695 663 1,358
Wednesday 689 633 1,322
Thursday 742 664 1,406
Friday 806 695 1,501
Saturday 838 788 1,626
Total incidents 5,387 5,022 10,409

Source: AIC NARMP incidents 2004–10 [computer file]

Table 17 Time of day of armed robbery incidents, 2009 and 2010
Location type 2009 2010 Total
Midnight–02:59 837 721 1,558
03:00–05:59 427 399 826
06:00–08:59 252 239 491
09:00–11:59 355 331 686
Noon–14:49 488 525 1,013
15:00–17:59 685 587 1,272
18:00–20:59 1,057 1,004 2,061
21:00–23:59 1,280 1,216 2,496
Missing 6 0 6
Total incidents 5,387 5,022 10,409

Source: AIC NARMP incidents 2004–10 [computer file]

Table 18 Number of offenders involved in armed robbery incidents, 2009–10
Count of offenders 2009 2010 Total
0 3,291 3,023 6,314
1 1,333 1,310 2,643
2 478 442 920
3 163 168 331
4 72 52 124
5 or more 50 27 77
Total incidents 5,387 5,022 10,409

Note: A count of zero indicates that offender/s had not been apprehended at the time of data extraction

Source: AIC NARMP incidents 2004–10 [computer file]

Table 19 Property stolen in armed robbery incidents, 2009–10
Property type 2009 2010 Total
Cash 1,244 1,123 2,367
Negotiable documents 277 317 594
Identity documents 502 395 897
Luggage 484 490 974
Electrical equipment 928 949 1,877
Jewellery 140 134 274
Alcohol and other drugs 248 273 521
Weapons 65 58 123
Personal items 372 439 811
Vehicles and accessories 62 69 131
Other items 264 286 550
Total items 4,586 4,533 9,119

Note: Excludes incidents without property variables or coded as not applicable. More than one type of property can be listed for an incident therefore total exceeds number of incidents. Property types can be listed multiple times in a single incident

Source: AIC NARMP incidents 2004–10 [computer file]

Related links

Armed robbery in Australia 2009–10: National Armed Robbery Monitoring Program report: