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Deaths in prison custody

2011–12 and 2012–13

A total of 95 deaths occurred in prison custody across the 2011–12 (n=42) and 2012–13 (n=53) financial years. Across the jurisdictions:

  • New South Wales recorded 37 deaths;
  • Western Australia recorded 17 deaths;
  • Victoria recorded 17 deaths;
  • Queensland recorded 15 deaths;
  • South Australia recorded four deaths;
  • the Northern Territory recorded three deaths;
  • Tasmania recorded two deaths; and
  • no deaths were recorded in the Australian Capital Territory.

Prison populations differ greatly across the states and territories, which has an impact on the number and distribution of deaths recorded. Table 1 presents the rates of death in prison by financial year, relative to each jurisdiction’s prison population (per 100 prisoners on an average day).

Table 1 Deaths in prison custody by jurisdiction and Indigenous status, 2011–12 to 2012–13 (rate per 100 prisoners)
Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
n rate n rate n ratea (rate ratio)
Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
n rate n rate n ratea (rate ratio)
2011–12
New South Wales 1 0.05 17 0.23 18 0.19
Victoria 0 0.00 4 0.09 4 0.08
Queensland 2 0.12 4 0.10 6 0.11
Western Australia 2 0.10 5 0.17 7 0.14
South Australia 0 0.00 4 0.25 4 0.19
Tasmania 0 0.00 1 0.24 1 0.20
Northern Territory 1 0.08 1 0.44 2 0.14
Australian Capital Territory 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00
Total 6 0.08 36 0.17 42 0.14 (0.47)
2012–13
New South Wales 2 0.09 17 0.22 19 0.19
Victoria 1 0.26 12 0.24 13 0.24
Queensland 2 0.11 7 0.17 9 0.15
Western Australia 2 0.10 8 0.27 10 0.20
South Australia 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00
Tasmania 1 1.49 0 0.00 1 0.21
Northern Territory 1 0.08 0 0.00 1 0.07
Australian Capital Territory 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00
Total 9 0.11 44 0.20 53 0.17 (0.55)

a: Rate per 100 prisoners on an average day (SCRGSP 2014a) rate ratio: Indigenous/non-Indigenous

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Trend

A total of 1,487 deaths in prison custody have been recorded across Australia since 1979–80 (see Table A1 for a breakdown of the number of deaths by jurisdiction and financial year). Rates of death are available since 1981–82 and have fluctuated over time with an historical high of 0.44 deaths per 100 prisoners recorded in 1997–98. From 1997–98 through 2005–06, a consistent and statistically significant decline was recorded (see Figure 2). In more recent years, rates have fluctuated from 0.14 to 0.20 deaths, with 0.17 deaths per 100 prisoners recorded in 2012–13, the most recent year of data collection.

The prison population has generally risen since 1981–82, with only three declines recorded over the last 32 years—one decline from 1982–83 to 1983–84, another decline from 1991–92 to 1992–93 and the third decline between 2009–10 and 2010–11. Since the last NDICP monitoring report timeframe (2010–11), the number of people in prison has increased by approximately seven percent (ABS 2013), while the number of deaths recorded in 2012–13 was 8.6 percent lower than the number recorded in 2010–11 (n=53 cf n=58).

Demographic characteristics

The Indigenous status, age and sex of people who die in prison custody are recorded within NDICP. An overview of these demographic characteristics (number and rate) as they relate to deaths of people in 2011–12 and 2012–13 is presented in Table 2. Historical data are presented in Tables A3–A5.

Figure 2 Prison custody deaths, 1981–82 to 2012–13 (rate per 100 prisoners)a

a: Rate per 100 prisoners (SCRGSP 2014a)

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table 2 Prison custody deaths by Indigenous status, sex, and age, 2011–12 and 2012–13 (rate per 100 prisoners)a
2011–12 2012–13 Total
n rate n rate n
Indigenous status
Indigenous 6 0.08 9 0.11 15
Non-Indigenous 36 0.17 44 0.20 80
All persons 42 0.14 53 0.18 95
Sex
Male 42 0.15 52 0.18 94
Female 0 0 1 0.04 1
Age
Less than 25 yrs 3 0.06 2 0.04 5
25–39 yrs 8 0.05 10 0.06 18
40–54 yrs 11 0.15 22 0.29 33
55+ yrs 20 0.97 19 0.87 39
Median (mean) 53 (53.2) years 49 (48.8) years 50 (50.7) years
Total 42 0.14 53 0.17 95

a: Rate per 100 prisoners on an average day (SCRGSP 2014a)

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Indigenous status

2011–12 and 2012–13

There were 29,213 prisoners in Australia as at 30 June 2012 and of these, 27 percent (n=7,757) were of an Indigenous background (SCRGSP 2014a). Six of the 42 deaths in 2011–12 were of Indigenous persons (see Table 2), equating to 14 percent of all prison deaths.

In the 2012–13 financial year, a similar proportion of the total 30,081 detainees in prison custody were identified as Indigenous (27%; n= 8,259; SCRGSP 2014a). However, the modest increase in prisoner death numbers between 2011–12 and 2012–13 was also reflected in the number of Indigenous people who died in custody. In 2012–13, nine of the 53 deaths were of Indigenous persons, equating to 17 percent of all prison deaths.

Using prison population data from the Report on Government Services (SCRGSP 2014a), the rates of death in prison custody across Australia were:

  • 0.08 per 100 Indigenous prisoners and 0.17 per 100 non-Indigenous prisoners in 2011–12; and
  • 0.11 per 100 Indigenous prisoners and 0.20 per 100 non-Indigenous prisoners in 2012–13 (SCRGSP 2014a).

Trend

The number of both Indigenous and non-Indigenous deaths in prison custody fluctuates annually. Since 1979–80, 253 Indigenous persons have died in prison custody. Over the last 10 financial years, there have been only two occasions where the number of Indigenous deaths has exceeded 10 per year (2009–10 and 2010–11). Overall, the proportion of deaths of Indigenous people has been smaller than their relative representation as prisoners.

The rates of both Indigenous and non-Indigenous deaths have also fluctuated. For Indigenous Australians, rates have ranged from a low of 0.08 per 100 population in 2011–12, to a high of 0.43 per 100 population recorded in both 1984–85 and 1993–94. The recorded rates of death of non-Indigenous people have ranged from 0.14 per 100 recorded in 2005–06 to 0.48 per 100 recorded in 1983–84 (see Figure 3). Over the last decade, the rate of death for Indigenous persons in prison custody has generally been lower than that of non-Indigenous prisoners.

Figure 3 Prison custody deaths by Indigenous status, 1981–82 to 2012–13 (rate per 100 prisoners)a

a: Rate per 100 prisoners on an average day (SCRGSP 2014a)

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Sex

2011–12 and 2012–13

In 2011–12, each of the 42 prisoner deaths was of a male detainee, with a rate of 0.15 per 100 population. Of the 53 prisoner deaths in 2012–13, one female prisoner and 52 male prisoners died. The rate of death of female prisoners was 0.04 per 100 prisoners and the rate for males was 0.18 per 100 prisoners (see Table 2).

Trend

Male deaths have consistently outnumbered female deaths each year since 1979–80 (see Table A3), with 96 percent of all deaths being males. This generally corresponds with the gender distribution of the Australian prison population, where 92 percent of prisoners are male (ABS 2014a). From 1997–98 through 2005–06, the rate of death of male prisoners steadily declined. Since 2005–06, the rate has been more variable. Greater fluctuations are evident in the rate of female deaths due to the small numbers involved (see Figure 4). Current rates of death for both male and female prisoners are lower than those reported in the last monitoring report (0.18 cf 0.21 per 100 for males; 0.04 cf 0.15 per 100 for females).

Figure 4 Prison custody deaths by sex, 1981–82 to 2012–13 (rate per 100 prisoners)a

a: Rate per 100 prisoners on an average day (SCRGSP 2014a)

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Age

2011–12 and 2012–13

Across the 2011–12 and 2012–13 financial years, the median age at time of death of those in prison custody was 50 years (see Table 2). The median age at time of death was lower for Indigenous prisoners (48 years) than for non-Indigenous prisoners (52.5 years).

In 2011–12, the age group constituting the most deaths was 55 years and over (n=20; 48%), while in 2012–13, a similar number of deaths occurred in the 55 years and over age group (n=22; 42%) as in the 40–54 year old age group (n=19; 36%).

Trend

Since 1979–80, almost one in five (18%; n=272) deaths have been of persons aged less than 25 years; 38 percent (n=569) have been of persons aged 25 to 39 years, 23 percent (n=343 have been of persons aged 40 to 54 years and 20 percent (n=303) have been of persons aged over 55 years (see Table A5). Since 2000, the number of deaths of prisoners aged 55 years and over has been greater than the number of deaths of people aged 25 years or less.

Historically, a greater proportion of Indigenous prisoners die in the younger age groups compared with non-Indigenous prisoners. This is consistent with the lower life expectancy and lower median age of Indigenous Australians in the general population (ABS 2011, SCRGSP 2014b). In the 33 years to 2012–13, Indigenous prisoners who died in prison were in the following age categories:

  • less than 25 years (23%; n=59);
  • 25–39 years (47%; n=118);
  • 40–54 years (24%; n=60);
  • 55 years and older (6%; n=16).
  • Over the same time period, the proportion of deaths of non-Indigenous prisoners in each of the age categories was:
  • less than 25 years (17%; n=213);
  • 25–39 years (37%; n=451);
  • 40–54 years (22%; n=283);
  • 55 years and older (23%; n=287).

Rates of death by age category are strongly linked to the overall number of prisoners within that age category. As Australia’s prison population increases, so too does the number of detainees in each age category. As at 30 June 2013, prisoners aged 25–39 years accounted for half the population (n=15,386), while detainees aged 55 years or more accounted for seven percent of the overall prison population (n=2,187). As can be seen in Figure 5, there is a fluctuation in rates of death by age category and a very slight increase in rates of death among people 40–54 years and 25–39 years over the previous financial year (see Table 2 and Figure 5).

Figure 5 Prison custody deaths by age category, 1981–82 to 2012–13 (rate per 100 prisoners)a

a: Rate per 100 prisoners, census data (ABS 2013)

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Cause of death

2011–12 and 2012–13

Table 3 depicts the cause of death, as ascertained from autopsy reports, of prisoners who died during 2011–12 through 2012–13.

More than two-thirds of deaths in prison custody were due to natural causes (n=64; see Table 3). The majority of natural cause deaths were of people aged over 40 years for both Indigenous (53%; n=8) and non-Indigenous (65%; n=52) prisoners. Cancer was the leading cause of death among all prisoner deaths (n=19; 21% of deaths overall and 34% of natural cause deaths; see Table 4).

Table 3 Prison custody deaths by cause of death, 2011–12 and 2012–13 (n)
2011–12 2012–13 Totala
Indigenous Non-Indigenous All persons Indigenous Non-Indigenous All persons n %
Hanging 1 7 8 1 8 9 17 19
Natural causes 5 27 32 7 25 32 64 71
Head injury 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
External/multiple trauma 0 1 1 0 5 5 6 7
Drugs 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
Other/multiple causes 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
Total 6 35 41 8 41 49 90 100

a:1 case excluded from 2011–12 non-Indigenous group due to missing data; 1 Indigenous case and 3 non-Indigenous cases excluded from 2012–13 cases due to missing data

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table 4 Natural cause deaths in prison 2011–12 and 2012–13 (n)
2011–12 2012–13 Total
Indigenous Non-Indigenous All persons Indigenous Non-Indigenous All persons n %
Heart 2 5 7 2 5 7 14 25
Cancer 0 8 8 2 9 11 19 34
Stroke 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2
Respiratory 1 2 3 0 2 2 5 9
Infectious 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2
Other disease 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 5
Other/multiple 2 6 8 0 5 5 13 23
Total 5 24 29 4 23 27 56 100

Note: Excludes deaths where cause had not been determined by a Coroner at time of reporting

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Seventeen deaths (19%) resulted from hanging during the 2011–12 and 2012–13 financial years; two of these deaths involved Indigenous prisoners. At the time of reporting, the hanging points had been identified in 12 of the 17 deaths and comprised fittings in the cell (eg light fittings, ventilation grills or door handles (n=7), cell bars (n=2), bed bunks (n=2) and shower fixtures (n=1)). The materials used were identified for 14 deaths and were sheets (n=8), shoelaces (n=3), rope/cord (n=2) and a belt (n=1).

Trend

As shown in Figure 6, the greatest variability evident in causes of death since 1979–80 was for hanging deaths and natural cause deaths. Hanging deaths have declined, particularly since 2004–05, and overall account for 37 percent (n=545) of all deaths in prison custody since 1979–80. Since 1979–80, 28 percent of hanging points (n=153) were a cell fitting and 25 percent (n=136) of hanging points were the cell bars. The most commonly used material in hanging deaths has been sheets (n=241; 44%; see Tables A7–A8).

Since 2000–01, natural cause deaths have consistently outnumbered all other causes of death (see Table A9, Figure 6) and the proportion of deaths attributed to natural causes has exceeded two-thirds since 2005–06. In the 33 years to 2012–13, 44 percent (n=647) of all deaths in prison have resulted from natural causes. More natural cause deaths have been attributed to heart disease and other cardiac ailments (n=277; 45%) than any other natural cause.

Deaths due to drug or acute alcohol toxicity have been consistently low, with a small increase in the late 1990s. Deaths due to external trauma (eg strangulation, stabbing, police pursuits, head injury, gunshot wounds) have also occurred infrequently.

Since 1979–80, the deaths of Indigenous prisoners have been due to:

  • natural causes (55%; n=139);
  • hanging (34%; n=86);
  • external trauma (5%; n=14);
  • drugs (4%; n=11); and
  • other causes (<1%).

Figure 6 Prison custody deaths by cause of death, 1979–80 to 2012–13 (%)

Note: External trauma includes gunshots and head injuries

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Manner of death

Manner of death refers to the accountability or responsibility for the death as reported by the coroner or by prison authorities. Manner of death may be classed as self-inflicted, due to natural causes, justifiable (or lawful) homicide, unlawful homicide, accidental or other.

The manner of death is different to the cause of death but is a related variable and therefore the finding may be similar. For example, where a person dies as a result of natural causes, their death will be recorded as natural causes for both cause and manner of death. In other cases, cause and manner of death will differ. For example, where a person dies after hanging themselves, cause of death will be recorded as hanging and manner of death will be recorded as either self-inflicted or accidental hanging.

2011–12 and 2012–13

At the time of reporting, the manner of death for 89 of the 95 prison deaths across the 2011–12 and 2012–13 financial years was known. Sixty–four of these 89 deaths (72%) were due to natural causes (see Table 5). A further 21 deaths (24%) were considered to have been self-inflicted and four (5%) were unlawful homicides.

Trend

Since 1979–80, 44 percent (n=647) of prison deaths have been due to natural causes and 42 percent (n=616) were self-inflicted (see Table A8, Figure 7). Over this period:

  • self-inflicted deaths and deaths due to natural causes have consistently been the two most frequently recorded manners of death each year;
  • there have been only six lawful homicides, none since 2001–02;
  • accidental deaths have accounted for only eight percent of all deaths in prison with none recorded in the last two financial years;
  • of the 1,487 deaths that have occurred in the last 33 years, the manner of death was unknown or undetermined for 21 (1.4%).
Table 5 Prison custody manner of death 2011–12 and 2012–13 (n)
2011–12 2012–13 Total
Indigenous Non-Indigenous All persons Indigenous Non-Indigenous All persons n %
Self-inflicted 1 7 8 1 12 13 21 24
Natural causes 5 27 32 7 25 32 64 72
Justifiable homicide 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Unlawful homicide 0 1 1 0 3 3 4 5
Accident 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 6 35 41 8 40 48 89 100

Note: One non-Indigenous 2011–12 case excluded due to missing data; Five 2012–13 cases excluded due to missing data (1 Indigenous 3 non-Indigenous, 1 unspecified ethnicity)

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Figure 7 Prison custody deaths by manner of death, 1979–80 to 2012–13 (%)

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Most serious offence

NDICP collects information on the offence leading to custody. The offences are grouped into six categories based on severity of offence:

  • violent offence—includes homicide, assault, sex offences, other offences against the person and robbery;
  • theft-related offence—includes break and enter, other theft, property damage and fraud;
  • drug-related offence—includes possessing, using, dealing, trafficking and manufacturing/growing drugs;
  • traffic offence—includes road traffic, driving and license offences;
  • good order offence—includes public drunkenness, protective custody for intoxication in jurisdictions where public drunkenness is not an offence, justice procedure offences, breaches of sentences (including fine default) and other offences against good order (eg prostitution, betting and gambling, disorderly conduct, vagrancy and offensive behaviour); and
  • other/unknown—includes other offences not elsewhere classified or where the most serious offence is unknown.

Where information on more than one offence is submitted to the NDICP by the data provider, only the most serious of those is assigned to the case.

2011–12 and 2012–13

The most serious offence leading to incarceration was recorded for 94 of the 95 prisoner deaths occurring in the 2011–12 and 2012–13 financial years. Sixty (64%) of these prison deaths were of people whose most serious offence was violent in nature (see Table 6). Fourteen people (15%) had committed a theft-related offence and 14 (15%) others a drug-related offence. The most common offences leading to custody for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous prisoners were violent offences.

Table 6 Prison custody deaths by most serious offence 2011–12 and 2012–13 (n)
2011–12 2012–13 Total
Indigenous Non-Indigenous All persons Indigenous Non-Indigenous All persons n %
Violent 3 24 27 5 28 33 60 64
Theft-related 2 3 5 1 8 9 14 15
Drug-related 1 6 7 1 6 7 14 15
Good order 0 3 3 0 0 0 3 3
Traffic 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 2
Other 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
Total 6 36 42 8 44 52 94 100

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Figure 8 Prison custody deaths by most serious offence, 1981–82 to 2012–13 (rate per 100 prisoners)a

a: Rate per 100 prisoners on an average day (SCRGSP 2014a)

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Trend

In Figure 8, the trends in rates of death since 1979–80 are presented according to the most serious offence leading to imprisonment. The trends for specific offences show that:

  • rates of deaths of violent offenders have fallen over the years;
  • rates of deaths among theft-related offenders fluctuated widely until the late 1990s, but have declined considerably since then and become more stable; and
  • rates of deaths of other offenders have been consistently low and have never approached the rates of violent offenders.
  • Since 1979–80, the majority of both Indigenous (57%; n=145) and non-Indigenous (52%; n=639) deaths in prison custody have been of violent offenders.
Table 7 Prison custody deaths by location of death 2011–12 and 2012–13 (n)
2011–12 2012–13 Total
Indigenous Non-Indigenous All persons Indigenous Non-Indigenous All persons n %
Public hospital 3 12 15 4 17 21 36 38
Prison hospital 0 9 9 0 5 5 14 15
Cell 3 14 17 4 19 23 40 42
Custodial setting 0 1 1 1 3 4 5 5
Other 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 6 36 42 9 44 53 95 100

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Location of death

2011–12 and 2012–13

From 2011–12 through 2012–13, 40 (42%) prisoner deaths occurred in cells, 36 (38%) in public hospitals, 14 (15%) in prison hospitals and five (5%) in other custodial settings (See Table 7). When a prisoner dies in a public hospital, the cause of death or precipitating incident will generally have occurred within a prison setting. Further information on the circumstances of death in these cases can be found in the ‘cause of death’ section above.

Trend

Since 1979–80, over half of all prison deaths (51%; n=764) have occurred in prison cells (see Table A11). The proportion of all deaths occurring in cells are the same for both Indigenous (51%; n=132) and non-Indigenous (51%; n=632) prisoners. Public or prison hospitals accounted for the location of death of 561 prisoners over time (37%). A smaller number of deaths have occurred within the prison grounds but outside of cells (n=73; 5%).

Legal status of prisoners who died in custody

2011–12 and 2012–13

On 30 June 2013, 76 percent of all prisoners across Australia were serving a sentence (n=23,335), while the remaining 24 percent (n=7,374) were unsentenced prisoners on remand (SCRGSP 2014a). Of the 95 deaths that occurred from 2011–12 through 2012–13, 72 (76%) were of sentenced prisoners and 23 (24%) were of prisoners on remand. The number and rate of death by sentenced status for the two financial years are presented in Table 8. However, caution should be taken when interpreting the rates of death for unsentenced prisoners. The calculation of rates of death among these prisoners relies on an accurate count of the total annual number of unsentenced prisoners, which is currently not available. The prisoner numbers are based on census data taken at 30 June each year and cannot account for the total number of prisoners annually. Although true of all prisoners this is particularly relevant to a remand population whose length of time in custody is more variable.

Table 8 Prison custody deaths by legal status 2011–12 and 2012–13 (rate per 100 prisoners)a
2011–12 2012–13 Total
n rate n rate n
Sentenced
Indigenous 6 0.10 9 0.14 15
Non-Indigenous 25 0.15 32 0.19 57
All persons 31 0.14 41 0.18 72
Unsentenced
Indigenous 0 0.00 0 0.00 0
Non-Indigenous 11 0.23 12 0.23 23
All persons 11 0.16 12 0.18 23
Total 42 53 95

a: Rate per 100 prisoners on an average day (SCRGSP 2014a)

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Figure 9 Prison custody deaths by legal status, 1981–82 to 2012–13 (rate per 100 prisoners)a

a: Rate per 100 prisoners, census data (ABS 2013)

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Trend

Trends in the overall rates of death of unsentenced prisoners demonstrate high variability over time, with a pronounced decline across the years (see Figure 9). Overall, the legal status has been recorded for 1,472 of the 1,487 (99%) recorded cases of deaths in prison custody since 1979–80. Of these deaths, 1,017 (n=69%) have been of sentenced prisoners and the remaining 455 deaths (31%) have been of remandees.

Over the last 33 years, the majority of sentenced prisoner deaths have resulted from natural causes (54%; n=551), while the majority of unsentenced prisoner deaths have been due to hangings (62%; n=284). Data indicated that Indigenous prisoners are not more likely to hang themselves prior to sentencing, as the proportion of Indigenous and non-Indigenous deaths by legal status are approximately equal (26% of Indigenous deaths have been of unsentenced prisoners cf 31% of non-Indigenous deaths).

Type of prison in which deaths occurred: Government and private

In 2012–13, 81 percent of all prisoners (n=23,703) were detained in prisons operated by state and territory Corrective Services Departments. The majority of deaths also occur in these government institutions (80%; n=76; see Table 9).

It is difficult to make comparisons between deaths across government and private settings because the prisons will differ by security level and the profiles of the detainee population is also likely to differ by classification, offence history and a range of other factors including the proportion of Indigenous prisoners. General characteristics can however be documented to identify substantive differences as they emerge.

Over the 20 years to 2012–13 that NDICP has been collecting data on private prison deaths:

  • 89 percent (n=136) have been deaths of non-Indigenous people (cf 80%; n=740 in government prisons);
  • prisoners aged 55 years of age and older accounted for more private prisoner deaths than any other age category (32%; n=49), while in government institutions, a greater proportion of deaths were of people aged 25–39 years (38%; n=354) than any other age group;
  • both the cause and manner of death was most likely to be natural causes in each prison type (53%, n=80 private; 46%, n=425 government); and
  • a majority of deaths in both private and government-run prisons have been of sentenced prisoners (64%, n=97; 69%, n=642, respectively).
Table 9 Prison custody deaths by type of prison, 2011–12 to 2012–13 (rate per 100 prisoners)a
2011–12 2012–13 Total
n rate n rate n
Private
Indigenous 2 0 2
Non-Indigenous 8 9 17
All persons 10 0.18 9 0.16 19
Government
Indigenous 4 9 13
Non-Indigenous 28 35 63
All persons 32 0.13 44 0.19 76
All prisons
Indigenous 6 9
Non-Indigenous 36 44
All persons 42 53 95

a: Rate per 100 prisoners on an average day (SCRGSP 2014a)

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]