Australian Institute of Criminology

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Appendix

Table A1 Custodial deaths by custodial authority, 1979–80 to 2012–13
Police Prison Juvenile justice Other Total
1979–80 5 15 1 0 21
1980–81 12 29 1 0 42
1981–82 15 27 0 0 42
1982–83 22 25 0 0 47
1983–84 14 33 1 0 48
1984–85 21 27 0 0 48
1985–86 20 18 0 0 38
1986–87 42 37 1 0 80
1987–88 23 44 2 0 69
1988–89 29 37 0 0 66
1989–90 29 53 1 0 83
1990–91 26 35 1 0 62
1991–92 25 31 0 0 56
1992–93 38 43 0 0 81
1993–94 31 57 2 0 90
1994–95 30 55 0 0 85
1995–96 31 49 2 0 82
1996–97 34 63 1 0 98
1997–98 28 81 0 0 109
1998–99 21 64 1 1 87
1999–2000 36 64 1 0 101
2000–01 34 58 1 1 94
2001–02 42 52 0 1 95
2002–03 41 44 0 0 85
2003–04 42 39 0 0 81
2004–05 36 39 0 1 76
2005–06 24 28 1 1 54
2006–07 30 40 0 0 70
2007–08 34 46 0 0 80
2008–09 37 43 0 0 80
2009–10 27 58 0 0 85
2010–11 25 58 1 0 84
2011–12 31 42 0 0 73
2012–13 18 53 0 0 71
Total 953 1487 18 5 2,463

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A2 Prison custody deaths by jurisdiction, 1979–80 to 2012–13
NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas NT ACT Total
1979–80 3 2 3 1 5 0 1 0 15
1980–81 8 6 9 3 3 0 0 0 29
1981–82 7 7 6 5 1 1 0 0 27
1982–83 5 4 6 5 5 0 0 0 25
1983–84 12 14 4 2 1 0 0 0 33
1984–85 10 5 5 5 2 0 0 0 27
1985–86 6 2 7 1 0 0 2 0 18
1986–87 17 7 7 3 2 0 1 0 37
1987–88 13 18 5 3 2 2 0 1 44
1988–89 7 11 6 6 1 4 2 0 37
1989–90 28 4 12 3 5 1 0 0 53
1990–91 18 2 4 6 3 1 1 0 35
1991–92 6 2 11 4 5 3 0 0 31
1992–93 20 7 6 5 4 0 1 0 43
1993–94 29 5 11 2 6 3 1 0 57
1994–95 22 7 12 6 7 0 1 0 55
1995–96 18 5 10 6 6 2 1 1 49
1996–97 30 5 13 9 5 1 0 0 63
1997–98 29 13 11 17 6 1 3 1 81
1998–99 27 9 19 6 1 1 1 0 64
1999–2000 23 3 14 15 4 5 0 0 64
2000–01 18 11 11 9 7 0 2 0 58
2001–02 18 6 14 10 2 1 1 0 52
2002–03 16 5 7 8 5 1 2 0 44
2003–04 13 4 13 6 2 0 1 0 39
2004–05 15 4 4 7 6 2 1 0 39
2005–06 10 5 2 6 3 1 1 0 28
2006–07 22 3 6 3 4 1 1 0 40
2007–08 11 13 8 8 4 2 0 0 46
2008–09 15 8 9 4 5 1 0 1 43
2009–10 21 8 10 8 5 3 2 1 58
2010–11 20 10 11 5 4 2 6 0 58
2011–12 18 4 6 7 4 1 2 0 42
2012–13 19 13 9 10 0 1 1 0 53
Total 554 232 291 204 125 41 35 5 1,487

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A3 Prison custody deaths by sex, 1979–80 to 2012–13
Male Female Total
1979–80 15 0 15
1980–81 29 0 29
1981–82 23 4 27
1982–83 24 1 25
1983–84 32 1 33
1984–85 27 0 27
1985–86 16 2 18
1986–87 34 3 37
1987–88 43 1 44
1988–89 36 1 37
1989–90 51 2 53
1990–91 34 1 35
1991–92 30 1 31
1992–93 43 0 43
1993–94 51 6 57
1994–95 54 1 55
1995–96 49 0 49
1996–97 61 2 63
1997–98 78 3 81
1998–99 61 3 64
1999–2000 60 4 64
2000–01 56 2 58
2001–02 48 4 52
2002–03 41 3 44
2003–04 37 2 39
2004–05 35 4 39
2005–06 27 1 28
2006–07 39 1 40
2007–08 43 3 46
2008–09 41 2 43
2009–10 58 0 58
2010–11 55 3 58
2011–12 42 0 42
2012–13 52 1 53
Total 1,425 62 1,487

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A4 Prison custody deaths by Indigenous status, 1979–80 to 2012–13
Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
1979–80 4 11 15
1980–81 2 27 29
1981–82 3 24 27
1982–83 4 21 25
1983–84 2 31 33
1984–85 5 22 27
1985–86 4 14 18
1986–87 2 35 37
1987–88 4 40 44
1988–89 5 32 37
1989–90 9 44 53
1990–91 5 30 35
1991–92 4 27 31
1992–93 5 38 43
1993–94 12 45 57
1994–95 12 43 55
1995–96 13 36 49
1996–97 11 52 63
1997–98 12 69 81
1998–99 10 54 64
1999–2000 14 50 64
2000–01 14 44 58
2001–02 6 46 52
2002–03 12 32 44
2003–04 6 33 39
2004–05 8 31 39
2005–06 3 25 28
2006–07 8 32 40
2007–08 6 40 46
2008–09 7 36 43
2009–10 14 44 58
2010–11 12 46 58
2011–12 6 36 42
2012–13 9 44 53
Total 253 1,234 1,487

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A5 Prison custody deaths by age category, 1979–80 to 2012–13
Less than 25 yrs 25–39 yrs 40–54 yrs 55+ yrs Total
1979–80 4 4 5 2 15
1980–81 6 14 7 2 29
1981–82 8 10 7 2 27
1982–83 5 13 3 4 25
1983–84 14 12 4 3 33
1984–85 5 14 4 4 27
1985–86 3 9 1 5 18
1986–87 10 16 8 3 37
1987–88 15 20 5 4 44
1988–89 11 15 8 3 37
1989–90 16 23 8 6 53
1990–91 8 12 5 10 35
1991–92 7 12 8 4 31
1992–93 14 19 5 5 43
1993–94 12 27 10 8 57
1994–95 16 21 12 6 55
1995–96 12 21 11 5 49
1996–97 10 26 21 6 63
1997–98 26 30 16 9 81
1998–99 9 35 11 9 64
1999–2000 14 28 10 12 64
2000–01 7 32 6 13 58
2001–02 5 19 17 11 52
2002–03 6 16 13 9 44
2003–04 3 12 16 8 39
2004–05 4 16 11 8 39
2005–06 1 8 6 13 28
2006–07 3 9 11 17 40
2007–08 2 14 12 18 46
2008–09 1 16 16 10 43
2009–10 5 10 18 25 58
2010–11 5 18 15 20 58
2011–12 3 8 11 20 42
2012–13 2 10 22 19 53
Total 272 569 343 303 1,487

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A6 Prison custody deaths by manner of death, 1979–80 to 2012–13
Self-inflicted Natural causes Unlawful homicide Justifiable homicide Accident Other/unknown Total
1979–80 6 8 0 0 0 0 14
1980–81 10 13 3 1 1 1 29
1981–82 12 7 3 1 3 1 27
1982–83 11 12 0 0 2 0 25
1983–84 22 6 1 0 2 2 33
1984–85 10 12 2 0 2 1 27
1985–86 9 7 0 0 2 0 18
1986–87 15 15 4 0 3 0 37
1987–88 21 10 1 0 9 1 42
1988–89 16 11 3 0 6 0 36
1989–90 27 16 5 0 4 0 52
1990–91 16 17 1 0 2 0 36
1991–92 14 8 3 1 4 0 30
1992–93 25 11 3 1 4 0 44
1993–94 28 19 4 0 5 1 57
1994–95 27 15 6 0 6 0 54
1995–96 26 14 4 0 6 0 50
1996–97 24 28 4 0 7 0 63
1997–98 41 21 9 0 9 1 81
1998–99 27 18 8 0 11 0 64
1999–2000 32 21 4 1 5 1 64
2000–01 27 24 1 0 6 0 58
2001–02 24 24 3 1 0 0 52
2002–03 21 21 1 0 1 0 44
2003–04 17 19 2 0 1 0 39
2004–05 16 23 0 0 0 0 39
2005–06 9 18 1 0 0 0 28
2006–07 8 27 1 0 4 0 40
2007–08 8 36 0 0 1 1 46
2008–09 14 26 0 0 3 0 43
2009–10 16 38 4 0 0 0 58
2010–11 16 38 2 0 1 0 57
2011–12 8 32 1 0 0 0 41
2012–13 13 32 3 0 0 1 49
Total 616 647 87 6 110 11 1,477

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A7 Prison custody hanging deaths by hanging point used and year, 1979–80 to 2012–13 (n)
Cell bars Shower fixture Other cell fitting Fitting outside cell Bed bunk Other Missing Total
1979–80 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3
1980–81 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 10
1981–82 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 9
1982–83 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 8
1983–84 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 20
1984–85 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 8
1985–86 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 8
1986–87 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 13
1987–88 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 21
1988–89 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 15
1989–90 8 0 1 0 0 0 18 27
1990–91 6 0 4 0 0 0 2 12
1991–92 4 1 9 0 0 0 1 15
1992–93 8 1 8 0 1 0 1 19
1993–94 11 4 7 1 1 0 0 24
1994–95 6 5 13 0 3 0 0 27
1995–96 9 0 5 2 1 0 2 19
1996–97 9 0 8 1 1 1 3 23
1997–98 5 10 20 0 3 0 1 39
1998–99 12 1 7 0 2 0 4 26
1999–2000 8 2 12 1 6 0 0 29
2000–01 8 3 8 1 4 0 1 25
2001–02 7 7 4 2 1 0 0 21
2002–03 6 3 9 0 0 1 0 19
2003–04 9 0 2 0 2 1 0 14
2004–05 6 1 5 0 1 0 0 13
2005–06 1 2 2 0 1 0 0 6
2006–07 1 1 3 0 3 0 0 8
2007–08 3 0 2 1 0 0 0 6
2008–09 3 2 4 0 2 1 0 12
2009–10 2 2 7 0 2 0 0 13
2010–11 2 2 6 2 0 0 1 13
2011–12 2 1 2 0 2 0 1 8
2012–13 0 0 5 0 0 1 6 12
Total 136 48 153 11 36 5 156 545

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A8 Prison custody hanging deaths by hanging material used and year, 1979–80 to 2012–13 (n)
Sheets Shoelaces Belt Other clothing Rope/cord Other Missing Total
1979–80 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3
1980–81 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 10
1981–82 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 9
1982–83 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 8
1983–84 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 20
1984–85 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 8
1985–86 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 8
1986–87 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 13
1987–88 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 21
1988–89 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 15
1989–90 6 0 0 1 0 2 18 27
1990–91 6 0 1 0 1 4 0 12
1991–92 8 0 1 1 4 1 0 15
1992–93 9 0 2 2 4 2 0 19
1993–94 17 1 1 4 0 1 0 24
1994–95 17 0 2 2 2 3 1 27
1995–96 13 0 1 1 2 1 1 19
1996–97 11 5 0 3 2 0 2 23
1997–98 22 4 1 1 6 1 4 39
1998–99 15 2 0 1 2 3 3 26
1999–2000 15 6 0 4 4 0 0 29
2000–01 16 2 0 2 1 3 1 25
2001–02 14 1 0 1 2 3 0 21
2002–03 12 4 0 1 1 1 0 19
2003–04 9 2 0 1 1 1 0 14
2004–05 9 0 0 2 1 1 0 13
2005–06 3 0 0 0 1 2 0 6
2006–07 4 0 0 4 0 0 0 8
2007–08 4 0 0 1 1 0 0 6
2008–09 8 0 0 0 3 1 0 12
2009–10 6 1 0 1 3 2 0 13
2010–11 9 0 0 1 1 1 1 13
2011–12 4 1 1 0 0 1 1 8
2012–13 4 2 0 0 2 1 3 12
Total 241 31 10 34 44 35 150 545

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A9 Prison custody deaths by cause of death, 1979–80 to 2012–13
Hanging Natural causes Head injury Gunshot External/multiple trauma Alcohol/drugs Other/multiple causes Total
1979–80 3 8 1 0 3 0 0 15
1980–81 10 13 1 1 4 0 0 29
1981–82 9 7 0 1 5 2 3 27
1982–83 8 12 0 0 2 3 0 25
1983–84 20 6 0 1 2 4 0 33
1984–85 8 12 0 0 4 2 1 27
1985–86 8 7 0 0 0 2 1 18
1986–87 13 15 2 0 3 4 0 37
1987–88 21 10 0 0 6 5 0 42
1988–89 15 11 1 0 2 5 2 36
1989–90 27 16 0 1 6 2 1 53
1990–91 12 17 1 0 2 1 2 35
1991–92 14 8 2 1 2 4 0 31
1992–93 19 11 1 1 4 5 2 43
1993–94 24 19 0 0 3 10 1 57
1994–95 27 15 0 0 7 6 0 55
1995–96 19 14 1 0 5 10 0 49
1996–97 23 28 1 0 4 7 0 63
1997–98 39 21 0 0 10 11 0 81
1998–99 26 18 0 0 8 12 0 64
1999–2000 29 21 1 0 6 6 1 64
2000–01 25 24 0 0 2 6 1 58
2001–02 21 24 0 1 3 2 1 52
2002–03 19 21 0 0 2 1 1 44
2003–04 14 19 1 0 3 2 0 39
2004–05 13 23 1 0 2 0 0 39
2005–06 6 18 1 0 3 0 0 28
2006–07 8 27 1 0 0 3 1 40
2007–08 6 36 0 0 2 0 2 46
2008–09 12 26 1 0 1 2 1 43
2009–10 13 38 1 0 4 0 2 58
2010–11 13 38 2 0 2 1 1 57
2011–12 8 32 0 0 1 0 0 41
2012–13 9 32 1 0 5 1 1 49
Total 541 647 21 7 118 119 25 1,478

Note: 9 cases were excluded from this analysis due to missing data

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A10 Prison custody deaths by most serious offence, 1979–80 to 2012–13
Violent Theft-related Drug-related Good order Traffic Other Total
1979–80 8 3 1 1 1 1 15
1980–81 10 7 3 5 2 1 28
1981–82 9 11 3 3 0 0 26
1982–83 11 6 1 3 2 1 24
1983–84 14 13 0 6 0 0 33
1984–85 13 9 2 0 2 0 26
1985–86 8 6 1 1 0 0 16
1986–87 14 10 2 5 1 0 32
1987–88 17 18 2 3 1 2 43
1988–89 22 10 1 1 1 2 37
1989–90 28 16 3 2 0 2 51
1990–91 19 10 2 1 0 3 35
1991–92 16 8 2 4 0 1 31
1992–93 18 19 3 2 0 1 43
1993–94 25 22 2 5 2 1 57
1994–95 28 18 4 2 2 1 55
1995–96 21 20 5 0 2 1 49
1996–97 29 18 7 4 2 3 63
1997–98 39 23 11 6 1 0 80
1998–99 27 26 5 5 1 0 64
1999–00 33 24 2 1 2 2 64
2000–01 33 9 7 4 2 3 58
2001–02 28 11 5 4 2 2 52
2002–03 32 7 0 2 2 1 44
2003–04 30 2 3 1 1 2 39
2004–05 23 9 3 0 3 1 39
2005–06 22 4 1 1 0 0 28
2006–07 22 9 3 4 2 0 40
2007–08 31 5 4 3 3 0 46
2008–09 26 8 3 1 0 5 43
2009–10 39 5 3 0 5 6 58
2010–11 29 11 5 2 0 11 58
2011–12 27 5 7 3 0 0 42
2012–13 33 9 7 0 2 1 52
Total 784 391 113 85 44 54 1,471

Note: excludes missing information

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A11 Prison custody deaths by location of death, 1979–80 to 2012–13
Public hosp Prison hosp Cell Other custodial setting private property Public place Psych. hospital Other Total
1979–80 7 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 15
1980–81 6 0 14 0 0 0 0 0 29
1981–82 9 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 27
1982–83 8 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 25
1983–84 7 0 23 0 0 0 0 0 33
1984–85 10 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 27
1985–86 4 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 18
1986–87 14 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 37
1987–88 8 0 26 0 0 0 0 0 44
1988–89 11 0 19 1 0 0 0 0 37
1989–90 10 0 31 2 0 1 0 0 53
1990–91 14 0 21 0 0 0 0 0 35
1991–92 9 2 18 1 0 1 0 0 31
1992–93 12 3 26 2 0 0 0 0 43
1993–94 11 10 34 2 0 0 0 0 57
1994–95 11 7 33 3 0 0 0 1 55
1995–96 9 1 34 4 0 0 0 1 49
1996–97 20 5 32 4 0 1 0 1 63
1997–98 17 7 53 4 0 0 0 0 81
1998–99 9 5 41 8 0 0 1 0 64
1999–2000 14 7 38 5 0 0 0 0 64
2000–01 18 1 35 2 0 2 0 0 58
2001–02 18 1 26 7 0 0 0 0 52
2002–03 13 5 21 4 0 1 0 0 44
2003–04 10 4 22 2 1 0 0 0 39
2004–05 17 5 16 1 0 0 0 0 39
2005–06 7 3 14 4 0 0 0 0 28
2006–07 14 10 14 2 0 0 0 0 40
2007–08 16 12 12 5 0 0 0 1 46
2008–09 17 7 18 1 0 0 0 0 43
2009–10 18 11 24 4 0 0 0 1 58
2010–11 27 10 21 0 0 0 0 0 58
2011–12 15 9 17 1 0 0 0 0 42
2012–13 21 5 23 4 0 0 0 0 53
Total 431 130 764 73 1 6 1 5 1,487

Note: 76 cases excluded due to missing data

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A12 Prison custody deaths by legal status, 1979–80 to 2012–13
Sentenced Unsentenced Total
1979–80 11 4 15
1980–81 20 8 28
1981–82 18 8 26
1982–83 19 6 25
1983–84 20 13 33
1984–85 23 3 26
1985–86 9 6 15
1986–87 25 9 32
1987–88 29 14 43
1988–89 26 9 35
1989–90 35 15 50
1990–91 22 13 35
1991–92 21 10 31
1992–93 29 14 43
1993–94 38 19 57
1994–95 38 17 55
1995–96 36 13 49
1996–97 46 17 63
1997–98 48 33 81
1998–99 45 19 64
1999–2000 41 23 64
2000–01 43 15 58
2001–02 36 16 52
2002–03 25 19 44
2003–04 26 13 39
2004–05 22 17 39
2005–06 22 6 28
2006–07 29 11 40
2007–08 34 12 46
2008–09 26 17 43
2009–10 42 16 58
2010–11 41 17 58
2011–12 31 11 42
2012–13 41 12 53
Total 1017 455 1,472

Note:15 cases excluded due to missing data

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A13 Deaths in police custody and custody-related operations, 1979–80 to 2012–13 (n)
Category 1 Category 2 Total
1979–80 5 0 5
1980–81 12 0 12
1981–82 15 0 15
1982–83 22 0 22
1983–84 14 0 14
1984–85 20 1 21
1985–86 20 0 20
1986–87 42 0 42
1987–88 23 0 23
1988–89 29 0 29
1989–90 23 6 29
1990–91 24 2 26
1991–92 19 6 25
1992–93 20 18 38
1993–94 19 12 31
1994–95 18 12 30
1995–96 12 19 31
1996–97 13 21 34
1997–98 16 12 28
1998–99 14 7 21
1999–2000 14 22 36
2000–01 11 23 34
2001–02 13 29 42
2002–03 12 29 41
2003–04 11 31 42
2004–05 12 24 36
2005–06 6 18 24
2006–07 13 17 30
2007–08 13 21 34
2008–09 12 25 37
2009–10 11 16 27
2010–11 15 10 25
2011–12 15 16 31
2012–13 7 11 18
Total 545 408 953

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A14 Police custody and custody-related operations deaths by jurisdiction, 1979–80 to 2012–13
NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas NT ACT Total
1979–80 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 5
1980–81 3 1 2 4 0 0 2 0 12
1981–82 4 3 1 4 2 1 0 0 15
1982–83 6 3 4 3 4 2 0 0 22
1983–84 5 2 2 4 1 0 0 0 14
1984–85 5 4 5 5 0 0 2 0 21
1985–86 4 1 4 4 2 1 4 0 20
1986–87 13 11 9 3 4 0 2 0 42
1987–88 7 4 5 4 1 1 1 0 23
1988–89 10 6 6 4 3 0 0 0 29
1989–90 5 7 7 5 2 1 1 1 29
1990–91 3 9 6 4 2 0 2 0 26
1991–92 4 9 5 0 2 3 1 1 25
1992–93 16 14 3 1 4 0 0 0 38
1993–94 8 10 7 0 1 2 2 1 31
1994–95 14 5 4 3 1 1 1 0 30
1995–96 9 7 5 4 1 3 1 1 31
1996–97 16 2 2 6 2 1 5 0 34
1997–98 14 8 1 3 0 0 2 0 28
1998–99 6 4 6 3 0 0 2 0 21
1999–2000 11 4 4 5 7 0 4 0 36
2000–01 17 4 3 4 5 0 1 0 34
2001–02 14 13 3 6 1 0 5 0 42
2002–03 14 6 7 7 3 1 3 0 41
2003–04 15 6 9 6 2 0 3 1 42
2004–05 11 7 10 6 2 0 0 0 36
2005–06 6 2 4 6 4 0 1 1 24
2006–07 10 6 4 4 4 0 1 1 30
2007–08 7 8 5 4 4 1 5 0 34
2008–09 6 3 8 8 6 0 5 1 37
2009–10 5 6 6 3 1 1 4 1 27
2010–11 6 1 7 6 2 2 0 1 25
2011–12 11 3 7 5 3 0 2 0 31
2012–13 6 2 2 6 1 1 0 0 18
Total 291 181 166 142 77 22 62 10 953

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A15 Deaths in police custody and custody-related operations by Indigenous status, 1979–80 to 2012–13 (n)
Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
1979–80 1 4 5
1980–81 7 5 12
1981–82 2 13 15
1982–83 5 17 22
1983–84 3 11 14
1984–85 8 13 21
1985–86 5 15 20
1986–87 15 27 42
1987–88 6 17 23
1988–89 10 19 29
1989–90 9 20 29
1990–91 3 23 26
1991–92 5 20 25
1992–93 5 33 38
1993–94 3 28 31
1994–95 3 27 30
1995–96 6 25 31
1996–97 8 26 34
1997–98 5 23 28
1998–99 7 14 21
1999–2000 4 32 36
2000–01 7 27 34
2001–02 8 34 42
2002–03 11 30 41
2003–04 10 32 42
2004–05 11 25 36
2005–06 7 17 24
2006–07 3 27 30
2007–08 5 29 34
2008–09 8 29 37
2009–10 6 21 27
2010–11 7 18 25
2011–12 2 29 31
2012–13 4 14 18
Total 209 744 953

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A16 Deaths in police custody and custody-related operations by sex, 1979–80 to 2012–13 (n)
Male Female Total
1979–80 5 0 5
1980–81 10 2 12
1981–82 15 0 15
1982–83 19 3 22
1983–84 14 0 14
1984–85 21 0 21
1985–86 19 1 20
1986–87 41 1 42
1987–88 23 0 23
1988–89 24 5 29
1989–90 27 2 29
1990–91 25 1 26
1991–92 20 5 25
1992–93 34 4 38
1993–94 26 5 31
1994–95 28 2 30
1995–96 30 1 31
1996–97 34 0 34
1997–98 25 3 28
1998–99 18 3 21
1999–2000 36 0 36
2000–01 33 1 34
2001–02 37 5 42
2002–03 37 4 41
2003–04 40 2 42
2004–05 33 3 36
2005–06 22 2 24
2006–07 27 3 30
2007–08 32 2 34
2008–09 37 0 37
2009–10 26 1 27
2010–11 25 0 25
2011–12 30 1 31
2012–13 17 1 18
Total 890 63 953

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A17 Deaths in police custody and custody-related operations by age category, 1979–80 to 2012–13
Less than 25 yrs 25–39 yrs 40–54 yrs 55+ yrs Total
1979–80 1 3 1 0 5
1980–81 5 0 2 5 12
1981–82 4 4 6 1 15
1982–83 6 7 7 2 22
1983–84 4 3 3 4 14
1984–85 2 8 6 4 21
1985–86 4 10 4 2 20
1986–87 11 16 12 3 42
1987–88 6 9 5 3 23
1988–89 8 19 1 1 29
1989–90 10 10 6 3 29
1990–91 9 14 2 1 26
1991–92 6 10 6 3 25
1992–93 14 9 12 3 38
1993–94 9 13 7 2 31
1994–95 10 11 9 0 30
1995–96 13 10 5 3 31
1996–97 11 14 5 4 34
1997–98 7 16 4 1 28
1998–99 7 10 2 1 21
1999–2000 8 21 6 1 36
2000–01 13 11 7 3 34
2001–02 16 15 9 2 42
2002–03 13 17 9 2 41
2003–04 12 20 9 1 42
2004–05 10 19 6 1 36
2005–06 6 13 4 1 24
2006–07 5 17 6 2 30
2007–08 7 13 12 2 34
2008–09 14 15 5 3 37
2009–10 9 11 5 2 27
2010–11 6 10 6 3 25
2011–12 4 18 7 2 31
2012–13 0 7 9 2 18
Total 270 403 205 73 953

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A18 Deaths in police custody and custody-related operations by manner of death, 1979–80 to 2012–13
Self-inflicted Natural causes Unlawful homicide Justifiable homicide Accident Other/unknown Missing Total
1979–80 1 1 1 0 2 0 0 5
1980–81 2 5 0 0 2 2 1 12
1981–82 8 6 0 0 1 0 0 15
1982–83 6 9 0 0 6 0 1 22
1983–84 7 6 0 0 0 1 0 14
1984–85 6 10 0 0 0 1 21
1985–86 7 5 0 0 4 2 2 20
1986–87 22 11 1 2 4 1 1 42
1987–88 12 7 0 3 0 0 1 23
1988–89 15 4 0 3 4 2 1 29
1989–90 9 4 1 1 13 1 0 29
1990–91 10 3 0 3 7 3 0 26
1991–92 9 5 0 4 7 0 0 25
1992–93 13 0 1 4 18 2 0 38
1993–94 11 4 0 9 6 1 0 31
1994–95 10 1 0 7 12 0 0 30
1995–96 12 4 0 4 11 0 0 31
1996–97 12 2 1 7 12 0 0 34
1997–98 8 2 1 5 12 0 0 28
1998–99 2 6 0 2 11 0 0 21
1999–2000 9 2 0 11 12 2 0 36
2000–01 8 4 1 2 19 0 0 34
2001–02 13 4 2 2 21 0 0 42
2002–03 17 3 1 4 15 1 0 41
2003–04 14 4 0 6 18 0 0 42
2004–05 12 2 3 6 12 1 0 36
2005–06 8 3 2 3 8 0 0 24
2006–07 10 4 0 3 12 0 1 30
2007–08 12 7 0 3 12 0 0 34
2008–09 10 2 1 4 18 1 1 37
2009–10 7 3 0 3 13 1 0 27
2010–11 5 6 0 6 8 0 0 25
2011–12 11 1 1 4 11 2 1 31
2012–13 6 2 0 1 8 0 1 18
Total 324 142 17 112 323 23 12 953

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A19 Deaths in Police custody and custody-related operations by cause of death, 1979–80 to 2012–13
Hanging Natural causes Head injury Gunshot External/ multiple trauma Alcohol/ drugs Other/ multiple causes Unknown Total
1979–80 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 5
1980–81 2 5 3 1 0 1 0 0 12
1981–82 8 6 0 0 0 1 0 0 15
1982–83 6 9 4 0 0 3 0 0 22
1983–84 7 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 14
1984–85 6 10 1 0 0 3 0 1 21
1985–86 6 5 4 1 1 3 0 0 20
1986–87 22 11 0 2 3 3 0 1 42
1987–88 12 7 0 3 0 0 0 1 23
1988–89 13 4 1 4 2 3 1 1 29
1989–90 7 4 2 2 6 6 2 0 29
1990–91 5 3 3 8 3 2 2 0 26
1991–92 4 5 3 6 2 5 0 0 25
1992–93 6 0 6 11 8 4 3 0 38
1993–94 2 4 1 16 4 2 2 0 31
1994–95 0 1 4 11 5 7 2 0 30
1995–96 2 4 0 11 12 1 1 0 31
1996–97 2 2 3 15 10 2 0 0 34
1997–98 3 2 1 7 12 3 0 0 28
1998–99 2 6 0 2 6 4 1 0 21
1999–2000 2 2 3 15 13 1 0 0 36
2000–01 0 4 5 7 13 2 3 0 34
2001–02 2 4 8 6 18 1 3 0 42
2002–03 5 3 5 10 17 0 1 0 41
2003–04 4 4 1 11 16 3 3 0 42
2004–05 3 2 3 11 15 0 2 0 36
2005–06 2 3 6 6 5 2 0 0 24
2006–07 1 4 0 7 13 2 2 1 30
2007–08 1 7 2 9 13 1 1 0 34
2008–09 1 2 4 11 17 1 1 0 37
2009–10 1 3 3 8 8 1 3 0 27
2010–11 0 5 0 9 9 2 0 0 25
2011–12 0 1 2 6 15 3 3 1 31
2012–13 0 2 0 5 6 1 3 1 18
Total 138 141 79 221 253 75 39 7 953

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A20 Deaths in Police custody and custody-related operations by most serious offence, 1979–80 to 2012–13
Violent Theft-related Drug-related Good order Traffic Other Unknown Total
1979–80 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5
1980–81 0 1 0 5 0 0 6 12
1981–82 2 0 0 3 1 2 7 15
1982–83 1 1 0 11 2 0 7 22
1983–84 0 4 0 4 0 0 6 14
1984–85 0 2 0 7 0 0 12 21
1985–86 0 2 0 8 2 0 8 20
1986–87 2 5 0 22 0 1 12 42
1987–88 1 4 1 7 0 1 9 23
1988–89 5 3 1 16 0 1 3 29
1989–90 4 6 0 15 3 1 0 29
1990–91 7 7 0 12 0 0 0 26
1991–92 5 2 1 11 2 4 0 25
1992–93 8 16 2 4 5 3 0 38
1993–94 14 7 0 4 3 3 0 31
1994–95 13 7 3 3 3 0 1 30
1995–96 13 9 0 4 4 1 0 31
1996–97 14 10 1 6 1 2 0 34
1997–98 6 6 0 9 4 1 2 28
1998–99 6 9 0 2 1 2 1 21
1999–2000 18 10 2 3 2 1 0 36
2000–01 9 7 0 7 6 5 0 34
2001–02 8 14 0 3 7 10 0 42
2002–03 8 8 1 4 9 10 1 41
2003–04 16 9 1 5 7 3 1 42
2004–05 16 8 3 2 5 1 1 36
2005–06 8 3 3 3 4 3 0 24
2006–07 9 3 1 0 6 7 4 30
2007–08 9 4 1 2 7 10 1 34
2008–09 10 3 0 4 12 5 3 37
2009–10 7 2 1 3 7 6 1 27
2010–11 9 3 0 3 7 0 3 25
2011–12 13 2 0 3 8 5 0 31
2012–13 7 2 0 2 1 3 3 18
Total 248 179 22 197 119 91 97 953

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A21 Deaths in Police custody and custody-related operations by location of death, 1979–80 to 2012–13
Public hospital Cell Custodial setting Private property Public place Other Unknown Total
1979–80 2 0 0 0 0 0 5 7
1980–81 2 0 0 0 0 0 10 2
1981–82 2 0 0 0 0 0 13 2
1982–83 4 0 0 0 0 0 18 4
1983–84 1 1 0 0 0 0 12 2
1984–85 2 1 0 0 1 0 17 4
1985–86 7 1 0 0 0 0 12 8
1986–87 2 1 1 1 1 0 36 6
1987–88 1 0 0 2 1 0 19 4
1988–89 4 12 3 2 1 0 7 22
1989–90 6 11 5 1 6 0 0 29
1990–91 7 6 4 5 4 0 0 26
1991–92 11 5 3 3 3 0 0 25
1992–93 13 3 2 3 15 2 0 38
1993–94 8 2 2 5 13 1 0 31
1994–95 7 2 2 5 14 0 0 30
1995–96 11 3 0 7 8 0 31
1996–97 12 2 2 4 12 2 0 34
1997–98 7 6 1 3 10 1 0 28
1998–99 10 3 2 2 3 1 0 21
1999–2000 8 1 1 9 17 0 0 36
2000–01 8 5 0 3 18 0 0 34
2001–02 9 2 2 5 24 0 0 42
2002–03 7 2 3 4 24 1 0 41
2003–04 3 4 0 8 27 0 0 42
2004–05 7 1 3 6 18 1 0 36
2005–06 5 2 1 4 12 0 0 24
2006–07 7 2 1 5 14 1 0 30
2007–08 18 1 0 4 11 0 0 34
2008–09 8 2 0 7 19 1 0 37
2009–10 9 3 1 5 8 1 0 27
2010–11 3 1 0 8 13 0 0 25
2011–12 6 1 1 8 15 0 0 31
2012–13 2 1 0 2 13 0 0 18
Total 217 87 40 121 325 14 149 953
Table A22 Deaths in Police custody and custody-related operations by method of detainment, 1979–80 to 2012–13
Motor vehicle pursuit Other pursuit Siege Raid Shooting/other Unknown Total
1979–80 0 0 0 0 0 5 5
1980–81 0 0 0 0 0 12 12
1981–82 0 0 0 0 0 15 15
1982–83 0 0 0 0 0 22 22
1983–84 0 0 0 0 0 14 14
1984–85 0 0 0 0 1 20 21
1985–86 0 0 0 0 0 20 20
1986–87 0 0 0 1 1 40 42
1987–88 0 1 0 1 1 20 23
1988–89 0 0 1 0 3 25 29
1989–90 5 1 0 0 3 20 29
1990–91 1 0 1 2 6 16 26
1991–92 2 2 1 0 6 14 25
1992–93 10 4 3 0 9 12 38
1993–94 5 1 4 1 10 10 31
1994–95 7 2 3 1 10 7 30
1995–96 9 0 3 1 11 7 31
1996–97 11 1 7 2 7 6 34
1997–98 11 1 2 0 4 10 28
1998–99 5 0 1 0 4 11 21
1999–2000 12 2 3 5 10 4 36
2000–01 12 6 6 2 1 7 34
2001–02 19 2 3 1 5 12 42
2002–03 15 4 3 1 7 11 41
2003–04 12 7 7 2 7 7 42
2004–05 11 4 2 1 10 8 36
2005–06 10 0 3 0 6 5 24
2006–07 9 2 4 0 8 7 30
2007–08 9 5 5 0 11 4 34
2008–09 15 1 5 3 8 5 37
2009–10 9 2 7 1 2 6 27
2010–11 7 2 5 5 3 3 25
2011–12 9 1 6 5 7 3 31
2012–13 5 3 2 4 2 2 18
Total 220 54 87 39 163 390 953

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

Table A23 Deaths in Police custody and custody-related operations by type of custody, 1979–80 to 2012–13
Institution Escaping Detaining Other cases Total
1979–80 5 0 0 0 5
1980–81 12 0 0 0 12
1981–82 15 0 0 0 15
1982–83 22 0 0 0 22
1983–84 14 0 0 0 14
1984–85 20 0 0 1 21
1985–86 20 0 0 0 20
1986–87 40 0 2 0 42
1987–88 20 0 3 0 23
1988–89 26 0 3 0 29
1989–90 20 0 9 0 29
1990–91 16 0 10 0 26
1991–92 13 0 11 1 25
1992–93 11 0 26 1 38
1993–94 8 0 21 2 31
1994–95 7 0 23 0 30
1995–96 7 0 24 0 31
1996–97 5 1 28 0 34
1997–98 10 0 18 0 28
1998–99 9 0 10 2 21
1999–2000 4 0 32 0 36
2000–01 6 0 27 1 34
2001–02 6 0 30 6 42
2002–03 7 1 30 3 41
2003–04 5 2 35 0 42
2004–05 7 0 28 1 36
2005–06 5 0 19 0 24
2006–07 5 0 23 2 30
2007–08 4 0 30 0 34
2008–09 4 1 32 0 37
2009–10 5 0 21 1 27
2010–11 3 0 22 0 25
2011–12 3 0 23 5 31
2012–13 1 0 15 2 18
Total 365 5 555 28 953

Source: AIC NDICP 1979–2013 [computer file]

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