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Adelaide

Demographic information

  • The DUMA programinterviewed 726 detainees; they were on average 32 years old, and 85 percent (n=616) were male (see Table 12).
  • Year 10 or less was the highest education level attained by 31 percent (n=227) of detainees (see Table 13).
  • Eighty-two percent (n=597) of detainees reported residing in stable accommodation (private or social housing), owned or rented by themselves (45%; n=330) or by someone else (37%; n=267), in the 30 days prior to their arrest (see Table 13).
  • Twenty-five percent (n=178) of detainees reported being in full-time employment at the time of their arrest; 22 percent (n=163) of detainees reported being unemployed and looking for work (see Table 13).
  • Forty-seven percent (n=293) of detainees reported having been charged on a previous occasion in the past 12 months, and 12 percent (n=77) of detainees reported having been in prison in the past 12 months (see Table 14).
  • Eleven percent (n=74) of detainees reported being released from prison in the past one to 10 years and four percent (n=24) of detainees reported being released from prison more than 10 years ago (see Table 14a).
  • Twenty-four percent (n=316) of all charges recorded against detainees were for violent offences.
  • Detainees may have been charged with multiple offences; each detainee was categorised according to the most serious offence (MSO) they were charged with (see Technical Appendix). Thirty percent (n=215) of detainees were categorised in the MSO of violent (see Table 15).

Drug, alcohol and drug-crime attribution findings

  • Of the 248 detainees who provided a urine sample, 69 percent (n=171) tested positive to at least one drug type (see Table 16), which is three percentage points higher than the test positive rate in 2011–12 (66%) and continues the rise in test positive rates noted in the 2011–12 monitoring report.
  • Test positive rates were highest for cannabis (44%; n=108), followed by amphetamines (27%; n=66), benzodiazepines (20%; n=49) and opiates (16%; n=39) (see Table 16).
  • Test positive rates were higher in 2013–14 than in 2011–12 for amphetamines (27% cf 23%) and cannabis (44% cf 43%); test positive rates were lower in 2013–14 than in 2011–12 for benzodiazepines (20% cf 25%) and opiates (16% cf 19%).
  • The increase in the test positive rate for amphetamines from 2011–12 to 2013–14 was due to a two percentage point increase in the number of detainees testing positive to MDMA (1% cf 3%) and a one percentage point increase in methamphetamine (22% cf 23%) and other amphetamines (0% cf 1%). The test positive rate for amphetamines has continued to increase from the rate of 15 percent reported in the 2009–10 monitoring report.
  • Forty-five percent (n=323) of detainees reported consuming alcohol in the 48 hours prior to their arrest and 67 percent (n=475) of detainees reported consuming alcohol in the 30 days prior to their arrest (see Table 17). These percentages have decreased slightly since the 2011–12 collection period (48% and 70% respectively).
  • Detainees most commonly reported consuming two or more types of alcohol on the last occasion of drinking (35%; n=113), followed by beer only (25%; n=81), spirits only (24%; n=79) and wine only (16%; n=51) (see Table 17). Since 2011–12 there has been a decrease in spirit-, beer- and wine-only drinkers (31%, 30% and 16% respectively in 2011–12) and an increase in detainees who consumed two or more types of alcohol on the last occasion of drinking (23% in 2011–12).
  • The average total number of drinks consumed on the last occasion of drinking was 20—only slightly lower than the average of 21 standard drinks reported in the 2011–12 monitoring report. Detainees who reported consuming two or more types of alcohol on the last occasion of drinking reported the highest level of consumption—on average, 29 standard drinks—followed by wine-only drinkers (26 standard drinks), beer-only drinkers (12 standard drinks) and spirit-only drinkers (10 standard drinks). This consumption pattern was also reflected in the average number of standard drinks consumed per hour on the last occasion of drinking (see Table 17).
  • The consumption pattern for total drinks consumed on the last occasion of drinking was similar to the pattern reported in 2011–12; the average number of standard drinks consumed per hour on the last occasion of drinking was not reported in 2011–12.
  • Examining drug use by crime type, the MSO with the highest percentage of detainees who tested positive to at least one type of drug was breach (82%; n=14), property (81%; n=34), drug (74%; n=14), violent (62%; n=51), disorder (55%; n=23) and DUI (20%; n=1) (see Table 18).
  • Detainees whose MSO was DUI were more likely to identify alcohol than other drugs (such as cannabis, heroin, methamphetamine or MDMA) as a contributing factor in their current police detention (77% alcohol cf 8% other drugs), as were detainees whose MSO was violent (31% alcohol cf 12% other drugs), disorder (52% alcohol cf 6% other drugs) or breach (28% alcohol cf 10% other drugs). Detainees whose MSO was drug were more likely to identify drugs other than alcohol as a contributing factor in their current police detention (44% other drugs cf 0% alcohol), as were detainees whose MSO was traffic (20% other drugs cf 14% alcohol) or property (18% other drugs cf 16% alcohol) (see Table 18). This attribution pattern is similar to that reported in the 2011–12 monitoring report.

Sample and demographics

Table 12 Adelaide DUMA sample, by age and gender, 2013–14a
Male Female Total
n % n % n %
Age (yrs)
18–20 68 11 17 15 85 12
21–25 148 24 15 14 163 22
26–30 102 17 22 20 124 17
31–35 92 15 18 16 110 15
36+ 206 33 38 35 244 34
Total 616 110 726
Min/max age 18/74 18/63 18/74
Mean age (median) 32 (30) 32 (31) 32 (30)

a: Excludes cases where gender was unknown

Note: Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Education, housing and employment

Table 13 Adelaide DUMA sample, by education, housing, employment and gender, 2013–14a
Male Female Total
n % n % n %
Education
Year 10 or less 197 32 30 27 227 31
Year 11 or 12 142 23 19 17 161 22
TAFE/university not completed 95 15 23 21 118 16
Completed TAFE 151 25 26 24 177 24
Completed university 29 5 12 11 41 6
Total 614 110 724
Housing
Owned or rented by self 272 44 58 53 330 45
Someone else’s place 233 38 34 31 267 37
Shelter or emergency 6 1 1 1 7 1
Incarceration facility/halfway house 6 1 3 3 9 1
Treatment facility 6 1 0 0 6 1
No fixed residence 61 10 9 8 70 10
Other 32 5 5 5 37 5
Total 616 110 726
Employment
Full-time 170 28 8 7 178 25
Part-time 69 11 17 15 86 12
Have job but not currently workingb 100 16 22 20 122 17
Looking for work 141 23 22 20 163 22
Not looking for work 95 15 25 23 120 17
Full-time homemakers 6 1 13 12 19 3
Studying 25 4 3 3 28 4
Retired 10 2 0 0 10 1
Total 616 110 726

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Due to illness, leave, strike, disability or seasonal work

Note: Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Criminal justice contact

Table 14 Adelaide DUMA sample, by criminal history and gender, 2013–14a
Male Female Total
n % n % n %
Prior charge history (past 12 months)
Yes 253 48 40 42 293 47
No 271 52 55 58 326 53
Prior prison history (past 12 months)b
Yes 67 13 10 10 77 12
No 464 87 87 90 551 88
Currently on parolec
Yes 14 4 5 9 19 5
No 327 96 53 91 380 95
Currently on probationc
Yes 50 15 6 10 56 14
No 291 85 52 90 343 86
Currently on community service orderc
Yes 7 2 1 2 8 2
No 334 98 57 98 391 98

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Calculated as anyone who reported being released from prison up to 365 days ago

c: From Q3 2013 to Q1 2014 only those who had served time in prison were asked this question. From Q2 2014 onwards all detainees were asked this question. Detainees who skipped the question in Q3 2013 to Q1 2014 have been treated as missing data as it is unknown how they would have answered this question

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Table 14a Adelaide DUMA sample, by prison history and gender, 2013–14
Male Female Total
Released from prison n % n % n %
Never been to prison 381 72 72 74 453 72
Up to one year ago 67 13 10 10 77 12
More than one year, up to two years ago 19 4 4 4 23 4
More than two years, up to four years ago 23 4 5 5 28 4
More than four years, up to six years ago 6 1 3 3 9 1
More than six years, up to eight years ago 5 1 0 0 5 1
More than eight years, up to ten years ago 8 2 1 1 9 1
More than ten years ago 22 4 2 2 24 4
Total 531 97 628

Note: Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Offending

Table 15 Adelaide DUMA sample, by offence and gender, 2013–14a
Male Female Total
Charges Detainees’ MSOb Charges Detainees’ MSOb Charges Detainees’ MSOb
Charges recorded n % n % n % n % n % n %
Violent 285 25 192 31 31 16 23 21 316 24 215 30
Property 162 14 96 16 50 26 32 29 212 16 128 18
Drug 116 10 46 7 18 9 11 10 134 10 57 8
DUIc 13 1 12 2 1 1 1 1 14 1 13 2
Traffic 88 8 47 8 5 3 3 3 93 7 50 7
Disorder 162 14 99 16 27 14 15 14 189 14 114 16
Breach 237 21 106 17 40 21 20 18 277 21 126 17
Other 77 7 18 3 18 9 5 5 95 7 23 3
Total 1,140 616 190 110 1,330 726

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Detainees may have been charged with multiple offences; each detainee was categorised according to the most serious offence (MSO) that they were charged with (see Technical Appendix)

c: Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs

Note: Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Drug use

Table 16 Adelaide DUMA sample, by urinalysis test results and gender, 2013–14a
Male Female Total
n % n % n %
Provided urineb
Yes 204 50 44 56 248 51
No 202 50 35 44 237 49
Test results
Cannabis 90 44 18 41 108 44
Cocaine 3 1 0 0 3 1
Amphetaminesc 51 25 15 34 66 27
Methamphetamine 45 22 13 30 58 23
MDMA 6 3 1 2 7 3
Other amphetamines 1 0 1 2 2 1
Opiatesd 27 13 12 27 39 16
Heroin 7 3 3 7 10 4
Methadone 3 1 4 9 7 3
Buprenorphine 13 6 9 20 22 9
Other opiates 10 5 3 7 13 5
Benzodiazepines 37 18 12 27 49 20
Any drug 138 68 33 75 171 69
Any drug other than cannabis 84 41 24 55 108 44
Multiple drugs 47 23 15 34 62 25

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Percentages have been calculated for the quarters in which urine samples were requested, which in 2013 was quarters 3 and 4 and in 2014 was quarters 1 and 3 (see Technical Appendix for further detail)

c: Includes methamphetamine, MDMA and other amphetamines

d: Includes heroin, methadone, buprenorphine and other opiates

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Figure 6 Test positive trends, adult males by drug type, Adelaide, 2002–14 (%)

Note: Data were not collected at this site during quarters 2 and 4 of 2012, quarters 1 and 2 of 2013, or quarters 2 and 4 of 2014

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2002–14 [computer file]

Figure 7 Test positive trends, adult females by drug type, Adelaide, 2002–14 (%)

Note: Data were not collected at this site during quarters 2 and 4 of 2012, quarters 1 and 2 of 2013, or quarters 2 and 4 of 2014

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2002–14 [computer file]

Self-reported alcohol use

Table 17 Adelaide DUMA sample, by self-reported alcohol use and gender, 2013–14a
Male Female Total
n % n % n %
Alcohol use
Past 48 hoursb 277 45 46 43 323 45
Past 30 days 405 67 70 65 475 67
Alcohol type consumed on last drinking occasion
Beer only 75 27 6 13 81 25
Wine only 42 15 9 20 51 16
Spirits only 59 21 20 44 79 24
Mixed drinksc 103 37 10 22 113 35
Male Female Total
n mean (median) n mean (median) n mean (median)
Quantities consumed on last drinking occasion (total standard drinks)
Beer only 74 12 (9) 5 10 (6) 79 12 (9)
Wine only 41 29 (16) 8 9 (10) 49 26 (16)
Spirits only 58 10 (5) 20 12 (7) 78 10 (6)
Mixed drinksc 103 29 (23) 10 29 (21) 113 29 (23)
Quantities consumed on last drinking occasion (standard drinks per hour)
Beer only 73 3 (3) 5 2 (1) 78 3 (3)
Wine only 32 4 (4) 8 4 (2) 40 4 (4)
Spirits only 51 3 (2) 15 2 (2) 66 3 (2)
Mixed drinksc 90 5 (3) 8 4 (4) 98 5 (3)

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Only if consumed alcohol in the past 30 days

c: ‘Mixed drinks’ refers to consuming more than one type of alcohol

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Linking drugs and crime

Table 18 Adelaide DUMA sample, by urinalysis test results and drug-crime attributions by most serious offence category, 2013–14a
Violent Property Drug Opiatesd Traffic Disorder Breach Other Total
n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n %
Urinalysis results
Cannabis 36 44 19 45 6 32 1 20 7 41 18 43 16 50 5 56 108 44
Cocaine 0 0 1 2 1 5 0 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1
Amphetaminesc 14 17 19 45 7 37 1 20 8 47 6 14 9 28 2 22 66 27
Opiatesd 8 10 15 36 1 5 0 0 3 18 4 10 6 19 2 22 39 16
Benzodiazepines 15 18 15 36 1 5 0 0 2 12 6 14 8 25 2 22 49 20
(Any drug) 51 62 34 81 14 74 1 20 14 82 23 55 27 84 7 78 171 69
(Any drug other than cannabis) 26 32 27 64 10 53 1 20 10 59 12 29 17 53 5 56 108 44
(Multiple drugs) 15 18 20 48 2 11 1 20 6 35 7 17 8 25 3 33 62 25
(Total urine samples) 82 42 19 5 17 42 32 9 248
Self-reported drug-crime attribution
Alcohol 66 31 21 16 0 0 10 77 7 14 59 52 35 28 4 17 202 28
Other drugs 25 12 23 18 25 44 1 8 10 20 7 6 13 10 5 22 109 15
Any attribution 86 40 39 30 25 44 11 85 16 32 63 55 47 37 9 39 296 41
(Total detainees interviewed) 215 128 57 13 50 114 126 23 726

a: Sample sizes may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs

c: Includes methamphetamine, MDMA and other amphetamines

d: Includes heroin, methadone, buprenorphine and other opiates

Note: Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]