Australian Institute of Criminology

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Bankstown

Demographic information

  • The DUMA program interviewed 166 detainees; they were on average 35 years old and 83 percent (n=137) were male.
  • Year 10 or less was the highest education level attained by 39 percent (n=64) of detainees (see Table 20).
  • Ninety-four percent (n=154) of detainees reported residing in stable accommodation (private or social housing), owned or rented by themselves (55%; n=90) or by someone else (39%; n=64), in the 30 days prior to their arrest (see Table 20).
  • Thirty-one percent (n=52) of detainees reported being in full-time employment at the time of their arrest; 27 percent (n=44) of detainees reported being unemployed and looking for work (see Table 20).
  • Thirty-three percent (n=53) of detainees reported having been charged on a previous occasion in the past 12 months, and 13 percent (n=20) of detainees reported having been in prison in the past 12 months (see Table 21).
  • Ten percent (n=14) of detainees reported being released from prison in the past one to 10 years and six percent (n=10) of detainees reported being released from prison more than 10 years ago (see Table 21a).
  • Thirty-nine percent (n=99) of all charges recorded against detainees were for violent offences.
  • Detainees may have been charged with multiple offences; each detainee was categorised according to the most serious offence (MSO) they were charged with (see Technical Appendix). Fifty-two percent (n=80) of detainees were categorised in the MSO of violent (see Table 22).

Drug, alcohol and drug-crime attribution findings

  • Of the 34 detainees who provided a urine sample, 47 percent (n=16) tested positive to at least one drug type (see Table 23), which is 10 percentage points lower than the test positive rate in 2011–12 (57%).
  • Test positive rates were highest for amphetamines (26%; n=9), followed by cannabis (24%; n=8), benzodiazepines (24%; n=8) and opiates (9%; n=3) (see Table 23).
  • Test positive rates were higher in 2013–14 than in 2011–12 for amphetamines (26% cf 16%) and benzodiazepines (24% cf 17%); test positive rates were lower in 2013–14 than in 2011–12 for cannabis (24% cf 37%) and opiates (9% cf 23%).
  • The increase in the test positive rate for amphetamines from 2011–12 to 2013–14 was mainly due to an eight percentage point increase in detainees testing positive to methamphetamine (16% cf 24%). The test positive rate for amphetamines has continued to increase from the rate of 10 percent reported in the 2009–10 monitoring report.
  • Thirty-two percent (n=52) of detainees reported consuming alcohol in the 48 hours prior to their arrest and 54 percent (n=88) of detainees reported consuming alcohol in the 30 days prior to their arrest (see Table 24). These percentages have increased slightly since the 2011–12 collection period (27% and 52% respectively).
  • It was most common for detainees to report consuming beer only on their last occasion of drinking (51%; n=23), followed by two or more types of alcohol (22%; n=10), spirits only (18%; n=8) and wine only (9%; n=4) (see Table 24). Since 2011–12 there has been an increase in the percentage of detainees who reported consuming beer only (34% in 2011–12) and a decrease in the percentage of detainees who reported consuming spirits only (37% in 2011–12) on their last occasion of drinking.
  • The average total number of drinks consumed on the last occasion of drinking was 10, a decrease in the average number of drinks reported in the 2011–12 monitoring report (18 standard drinks). The highest levels of consumption—on average, 19 standard drinks—were reported by detainees who consumed two or more types of alcohol on the last occasion of drinking, followed by beer-only drinkers (9 standard drinks), spirit-only drinkers (4 standard drinks) and wine-only drinkers (3 standard drinks). This consumption pattern was also reflected in the average number of standard drinks consumed per hour on the last occasion of drinking (see Table 24).
  • The average number of standard drinks consumed on the last occasion of drinking was lower in 2013–14 than in 2011–12 for wine-only drinkers (3 cf 17 standard drinks), spirit-only drinkers (4 cf 11 stand drinks) and those who consumed two or more types of alcohol (19 cf 28 standard drinks). The average number of standard drinks consumed per hour on the last occasion of drinking was not reported in 2011–12.
  • Examining drug use by crime type, the MSO category with the highest percentage of detainees who tested positive to at least one type of drug was traffic (100%; n=1), followed by the MSO of violent (50%; n=10), property (50%; n=2), drug (50%; n=2), and breach (33%; n=1) (see Table 25). As only 34 detainees provided a urine sample, caution should be exercised in interpreting these results.
  • Detainees whose MSO was DUI were more likely to identify alcohol than other drugs (such as cannabis, heroin, methamphetamine and MDMA) as a contributing factor in their current police detention (67% alcohol cf 0% other drugs), as were detainees whose MSO was disorderly (50% alcohol cf 0% other drugs). Detainees whose MSO was property were more likely to identify drugs other than alcohol as a contributing factor in their current police detention (18% other drugs cf 6% alcohol), as were detainees whose MSO was drug (36% other drugs cf 0% alcohol), traffic (20% other drugs cf 0% alcohol) or breach (26% other drugs cf 4% alcohol) (see Table 25). Detainees whose MSO was violent were equally likely to identify alcohol and other drugs as contributing factors in their current police detention. This attribution pattern is similar to that reported in the 2011–12 monitoring report.

Sample and demographics

Table 19 Bankstown DUMA sample, by age, 2013–14
n %
Age (yrs)
18–20 16 10
21–25 19 11
26–30 33 20
31–35 29 17
36+ 69 42
Total 166
Min/max age 18/75
Mean age (median) 35 (33)

Note: Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Education, housing and employment

Table 20 Bankstown DUMA sample, by education, housing and employment, 2013–14a
n %
Education
Year 10 or less 64 39
Year 11 or 12 47 28
TAFE/university not completed 17 10
Completed TAFE 26 16
Completed university 12 7
Total 166
Housing
Owned or rented by self 90 55
Someone else’s place 64 39
Shelter or emergency 1 1
Incarceration facility/halfway house 0 0
Treatment facility 1 1
No fixed residence 2 1
Other 7 4
Total 165
Employment
Full-time 52 31
Part-time 23 14
Have job but not currently workingb 14 8
Looking for work 44 27
Not looking for work 16 10
Full-time homemakers 9 5
Studying 3 2
Retired 5 3
Total 166

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Due to illness, leave, strike, disability or seasonal work

Note: Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Criminal justice contact

Table 21 Bankstown DUMA sample, by criminal history, 2013–14a
n %
Prior charge history (past 12 months)
Yes 53 33
No 107 67
Prior prison history (past 12 months)b
Yes 20 13
No 140 88
Currently on parolec
Yes 17 14
No 102 86
Currently on probationc
Yes 9 8
No 110 92
Currently on community service orderc
Yes 5 4
No 114 96

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Calculated as anyone who reported being released from prison up to 365 days ago

c: From Q3 2013 to Q1 2014 only those who had served time in prison were asked this question. From Q2 2014 onwards all detainees were asked this question. Detainees who skipped the question in Q3 2013 to Q1 2014 have been treated as missing data as it is unknown how they would have answered this question

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Table 21a Bankstown DUMA sample, by prison history, 2013–14
Released from prison n %
Never been to prison 116 73
Up to one year ago 20 13
More than one year, up to two years ago 4 3
More than two years, up to four years ago 3 2
More than four years, up to six years ago 5 3
More than six years, up to eight years ago 1 1
More than eight years, up to ten years ago 1 1
More than ten years ago 10 6
Total 160

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Offending

Table 22 Bankstown DUMA sample, by offence, 2013–14a
Charges Detainees’ MSOb
Charges recorded n % n %
Violent 99 39 80 52
Property 33 13 17 11
Drug 25 10 14 9
DUIc 6 2 6 4
Traffic 13 5 5 3
Disorder 17 7 4 3
Breach 51 20 27 18
Other 8 3 1 1
Total 252 154

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Detainees may have been charged with multiple offences; each detainee was categorised according to the most serious offence (MSO) that they were charged with (see Technical Appendix)

c: Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs

Note: Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Drug use

Table 23 Bankstown DUMA sample, by urinalysis test results, 2013–14a
n %
Provided urineb
Yes 34 67
No 17 33
Test results
Cannabis 8 24
Cocaine 0 0
Amphetaminesc 9 26
Methamphetamine 8 24
MDMA 0 0
Other amphetamines 1 3
Opiatesd 3 9
Heroin 2 6
Methadone 2 6
Buprenorphine 1 3
Other opiates 0 0
Benzodiazepines 8 24
Any drug 16 47
Any drug other than cannabis 14 41
Multiple drugs 9 26

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Percentages have been calculated for the quarters in which urine samples were requested, which in 2013 was quarter 4. No urine samples were requested at Bankstown in 2014 (see Technical Appendix for further detail)

c: Includes methamphetamine, MDMA and other amphetamines

d: Includes heroin, methadone, buprenorphine and other opiates

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Figure 8 Test positive trends, adult detainees by drug type, Bankstown, 2002–2014 (%)

Note: Data were not collected at this site during quarters 2 and 4 of 2012, quarters 1 to 3 of 2013, or quarters 1 to 4 of 2014

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2002–14 [computer file]

Self-reported alcohol use

Table 24 Bankstown DUMA sample, by self-reported alcohol use, 2013–14a
n %
Alcohol use
Past 48 hoursb 52 32
Past 30 days 88 54
Alcohol type consumed on last drinking occasion
Beer only 23 51
Wine only 4 9
Spirits only 8 18
Mixed drinksc 10 22
n mean (median)
Quantities consumed on last drinking occasion (total standard drinks)
Beer only 23 9 (6)
Wine only 4 3 (3)
Spirits only 7 4 (3)
Mixed drinksc 10 19 (14)
Quantities consumed on last drinking occasion (standard drinks per hour)
Beer only 22 3 (2)
Wine only 4 1 (1)
Spirits only 7 1 (1)
Mixed drinksc 9 4 (2)

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Only if consumed alcohol in the past 30 days

c: ‘Mixed drinks’ refers to consuming more than one type of alcohol

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Linking drugs and crime

Table 25 Bankstown DUMA sample, by urinalysis test results and drug-crime attributions by most serious offence category, 2013–14a
Violent Property Drug DUIb Traffic Disorder Breach Other Total
n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n %
Urinalysis results
Cannabis 4 20 2 50 2 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 24
Cocaine 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Amphetaminesc 4 20 2 50 2 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 33 0 0 9 26
Opiatesd 2 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 9
Benzodiazepines 7 35 0 0 1 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 24
(Any drug) 10 50 2 50 2 50 0 0 1 100 0 0 1 33 0 0 16 47
(Any drug other than cannabis) 8 40 2 50 2 50 0 0 1 100 0 0 1 33 0 0 14 41
(Multiple drugs) 5 25 2 50 2 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 26
(Total urine samples) 20 4 4 1 1 1 3 0 34
Self-reported drug-crime attribution
Alcohol 10 13 1 6 0 0 4 67 0 0 2 50 1 4 1 100 19 12
Other drugs 10 13 3 18 5 36 0 0 1 20 0 0 7 26 0 0 26 17
Any attribution 17 21 3 18 5 36 4 67 1 20 2 50 8 30 1 100 41 27
(Total detainees interviewed) 80 17 14 6 5 4 27 1 154

a: Sample sizes may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs

c: Includes methamphetamine, MDMA and other amphetamines

d: Includes heroin, methadone, buprenorphine and other opiates

Note: Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]