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Kings Cross

Demographic information

  • The DUMA program interviewed 112 detainees; 76 percent (n=85) were male and they were, on average, 33 years of age (see Table 40).
  • Year 10 or less was the highest education level attained by 42 percent (n=47) of detainees (see Table 41).
  • Seventy-eight percent (n=84) of detainees reported residing in stable accommodation (private or social housing), owned or rented by themselves (56%; n=60) or by someone else (22%; n=24), in the 30 days prior to their arrest (see Table 41).
  • Fourteen percent (n=15) of detainees reported having no fixed address or living in emergency accommodation (see Table 41), an increase of seven percentage points since 2011–12.
  • Twenty-eight percent (n=31) of detainees reported being in full-time employment at the time of their arrest; 22 percent (n=25) of detainees reported being unemployed and looking for work (see Table 41).
  • Forty-eight percent (n=51) of detainees reported having been charged on a previous occasion in the past 12 months, and 17 percent (n=17) of detainees reported having been in prison in the past 12 months (see Table 42).
  • Fifteen percent (n= 15) of detainees reported being released from prison in the past one to 10 years and seven percent (n=7) reported being released from prison more than 10 years ago (see Table 42a).
  • Twenty-five percent (n=49) of all charges recorded against detainees were for drug offences.
  • Detainees may have been charged with multiple offences; each detainee was categorised according to the most serious offence (MSO) they were charged with (see Technical Appendix). Twenty-four percent (n=27) of detainees were categorised in the MSO of violent (see Table 43).

Drug, alcohol and drug-crime attribution findings

  • Of the 69 detainees who provided a urine sample, 80 percent (n=55) tested positive to at least one drug type (see Table 44), which is 13 percentage points higher than the test positive rate in 2011–12 (67%) and continues the rise in test positive rates noted in the 2011–12 monitoring report.
  • Test positive rates were highest for amphetamines (61%; n=42), followed by cannabis (45%; n=31), benzodiazepines (33%; n=23) and opiates (32%; n=22) (see Table 44).
  • Test positive rates were higher in 2013–14 than in 2011–12 for cannabis (45% cf 32%), amphetamines (61% cf 31%) and benzodiazepines (33% cf 31%); test positive rates were slightly lower in 2013–14 than in 2011–12 for opiates (32% cf 35%).
  • The increase in the test positive rate for amphetamines from 2011–12 to 2013–14 was mainly due to a 25 percentage point increase in detainees testing positive to methamphetamine (27% cf 52%). The test positive rate for amphetamines has continued to increase from the rate of 24 percent reported in the 2009–10 monitoring report.
  • Fifty-seven percent (n=62) of detainees reported consuming alcohol in the 48 hours prior to their arrest and 74 percent (n=77) of detainees reported consuming alcohol in the 30 days prior to their arrest (see Table 45). The percentage of detainees who reported consuming alcohol in the 30 days prior to their arrest has increased since the 2011–12 data collection period (69%), while the percentage of detainees who reported consuming alcohol in the 48 hours prior to their arrest has remained consistent (58% in 2011–12).
  • It was most common for detainees to report consuming beer only on the last occasion of drinking (35%; n=19), followed by spirits only (22%; n=12), more than two types of alcohol (22%; n=12) and wine only (20%; n=11) (see Table 45). Since 2011–12 there has been an increase in the percentage of detainees who reported consuming beer and wine only (26% and 13%, respectively, in 2011–12) and a decrease in the percentage of detainees who reported consuming spirits only or two or more types of alcohol on the last occasion of drinking (30% and 31% respectively in 2011–12).
  • The average total number of drinks consumed on the last occasion of drinking was 10, a decrease from the average reported in the 2011–12 monitoring report (19 standard drinks). Detainees who reported consuming wine only on the last occasion of drinking reported the highest level of consumption—on average, 23 standard drinks—followed by those who consumed two or more types of alcohol (9 standard drinks), beer-only drinkers (7 standard drinks) and spirit-only drinkers (5 standard drinks). The average number of drinks consumed per hour on the last occasion of drinking was highest for wine-only drinkers (6 standard drinks), followed by beer-only drinkers (3 standard drinks), spirit-only drinkers (2 standard drinks) and detainees who consumed two or more types of alcohol (1 standard drink).
  • The consumption pattern for total drinks consumed on the last occasion of drinking was higher in 2013–14 than in 2011–12 for wine-only drinkers (23 cf 19 standard drinks), and lower for spirit-only drinkers (5 cf 9 standard drinks) and those who consumed two or more types of alcohol (9 cf 28 standard drinks). The average number of standard drinks consumed per hour on the last occasion of drinking was not reported in 2011–12.
  • Examining drug use by crime type, the MSO category with the highest percentage of detainees who tested positive to at least one type of drug was property (94%; n=16), followed by those whose MSO was drug (91%; n=10), violent (80%; n=16), disorder (75%; n=6) and breach (75%; n=6) (see Table 46). As only 69 detainees provided a urine sample, caution should be exercised in interpreting these results.
  • Detainees whose MSO was DUI were more likely to identify alcohol than other drugs (such as cannabis, heroin, methamphetamine and MDMA) as a contributing factor in their current police detention (100% alcohol cf 0% other drugs), as were detainees whose MSO was disorder (55% alcohol cf 0% other drugs) or breach (17% alcohol cf 8% other drugs). Detainees whose MSO was violent were more likely to identify drugs other than alcohol as a contributing factor to their current police detention (22% other drugs cf 7% alcohol), as were detainees whose MSO was property (41% other drugs cf 23% alcohol) or drug (48% other drugs cf 12% alcohol) (see Table 46). This attribution pattern is similar to that reported in the 2011–12 monitoring report, with the exception of detainees whose MSO was violent, who were more likely to identify alcohol than other drugs as a contributing factor in 2011–12.

Sample and demographics

Table 40 Kings Cross DUMA sample, by age, 2013–14
n %
Age (yrs)
18–20 14 13
21–25 19 17
26–30 15 13
31–35 21 19
36+ 43 38
Total 112
Min/max age 18/60
Mean age (median) 33 (33)

Note: Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Education, housing and employment

Table 41 Kings Cross DUMA sample, by education, housing, and employment, 2013–14a
n %
Education
Year 10 or less 47 42
Year 11 or 12 31 28
TAFE/university not completed 7 6
Completed TAFE 10 9
Completed university 16 14
Total 111
Housing
Owned or rented by self 60 56
Someone else’s place 24 22
Shelter or emergency 1 1
Incarceration facility/halfway house 2 2
Treatment facility 5 5
No fixed residence 14 13
Other 2 2
Total 108
Employment
Full-time 31 28
Part-time 19 17
Have job but not currently workingb 14 13
Looking for work 25 22
Not looking for work 21 19
Full-time homemakers 0 0
Studying 0 0
Retired 2 2
Total 112

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Due to illness, leave, strike, disability or seasonal work

Note: Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Criminal justice contact

Table 42 Kings Cross DUMA sample, by criminal history, 2013–14a
n %
Prior charge history (past 12 months)
Yes 51 48
No 55 52
Prior prison history (past 12 months)b
Yes 17 17
No 86 83
Currently on parolec
Yes 9 14
No 57 86
Currently on probationc
Yes 2 3
No 64 97
Currently on community service orderc
Yes 2 3
No 64 97

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Calculated as anyone who reported being released from prison up to 365 days ago

c: From Q3 2013 to Q1 2014 only those who had served time in prison were asked this question. From Q2 2014 onwards all detainees were asked this question. Detainees who skipped the question in Q3 2013 to Q1 2014 have been treated as missing data as it is unknown how they would have answered this question

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Table 42a Kings Cross DUMA sample, by prison history, 2013–14
Released from prison n %
Never been to prison 64 62
Up to one year ago 17 17
More than one year, up to two years ago 1 1
More than two years, up to four years ago 10 10
More than four years, up to six years ago 3 3
More than six years, up to eight years ago 0 0
More than eight years, up to ten years ago 1 1
More than ten years ago 7 7
Total 103

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Offending

Table 43 Kings Cross DUMA sample, by offence, 2013–14a
Charges Detainees’ MSOb
Charges recorded n % n %
Violent 34 17 27 24
Property 39 20 22 20
Drug 49 25 25 23
DUIc 11 6 10 9
Traffic 6 3 2 2
Disorder 21 11 11 10
Breach 28 14 12 11
Other 10 5 2 2
Total 198 111

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Detainees may have been charged with multiple offences; each detainee was categorised according to the most serious offence (MSO) that they were charged with (see Technical Appendix)

c: Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs

Note: Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Drug use

Table 44 Kings Cross DUMA sample, by urinalysis test results, 2013–14a
n %
Provided urineb
Yes 69 62
No 43 38
Test results
Cannabis 31 45
Cocaine 8 12
Amphetaminesc 42 61
Methamphetamine 36 52
MDMA 5 7
Other amphetamines 2 3
Opiatesd 22 32
Heroin 13 19
Methadone 8 12
Buprenorphine 6 9
Other opiates 5 7
Benzodiazepines 23 33
Any drug 55 80
Any drug other than cannabis 50 72
Multiple drugs 38 55

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Percentages have been calculated for the quarters in which urine samples were requested, which in 2013 was quarter 3 and in 2014 was quarters 1 and 3 (see Technical Appendix for further detail)

c: Includes methamphetamine, MDMA and other amphetamines

d: Includes heroin, methadone, buprenorphine and other opiates

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Figure 13 Test positive trends, adult detainees by drug type, Kings Cross, 2009–2014 (%)

Note: Data were not collected at this site during quarters 2 and 4 of 2012, quarters 1, 2 and 4 of 2013, or quarters 2 and 4 of 2014

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2009–14 [computer file]

Self-reported alcohol use

Table 45 Kings Cross DUMA sample, by self-reported alcohol use, 2013–14a
n %
Alcohol use
Past 48 hoursb 62 57
Past 30 days 77 74
Alcohol type consumed on last drinking occasion
Beer only 19 35
Wine only 11 20
Spirits only 12 22
Mixed drinksc 12 22
n mean (median)
Quantities consumed on last drinking occasion (total standard drinks)
Beer only 19 7 (4)
Wine only 10 23 (9)
Spirits only 12 5 (4)
Mixed drinksc 12 9 (8)
Quantities consumed on last drinking occasion (standard drinks per hour)
Beer only 18 3 (2)
Wine only 9 6 (2)
Spirits only 11 2 (2)
Mixed drinksc 9 1 (1)

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Only if consumed alcohol in the past 30 days

c: ‘Mixed drinks’ refers to consuming more than one type of alcohol

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Linking drugs and crime

Table 46 Kings Cross DUMA sample, by urinalysis test results and drug-crime attributions by most serious offence category, 2013–14a
Violent Property Drug Opiatesd Traffic Disorder Breach Other Total
n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n %
Urinalysis results
Cannabis 8 40 8 47 7 64 0 0 0 0 3 38 5 63 0 0 31 45
Cocaine 1 5 5 29 2 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 12
Amphetaminesc 11 55 11 65 10 91 0 0 0 0 4 50 5 63 1 100 42 61
Opiatesd 4 20 7 41 4 36 0 0 0 0 2 25 5 63 0 0 22 32
Benzodiazepines 6 30 8 47 4 36 0 0 0 0 3 38 1 13 1 100 23 33
(Any drug) 16 80 16 94 10 91 0 0 0 0 6 75 6 75 1 100 55 80
(Any drug other than cannabis) 13 65 15 88 10 91 0 0 0 0 5 63 6 75 1 100 50 72
(Multiple drugs) 9 45 13 76 8 73 0 0 0 0 2 25 5 63 1 100 38 55
(Total urine samples) 20 17 11 4 0 8 8 1 69
Self-reported drug-crime attribution
Alcohol 2 7 5 23 3 12 10 100 0 0 6 55 2 17 2 100 30 27
Other drugs 6 22 9 41 12 48 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 8 1 50 29 26
Any attribution 8 30 12 55 14 56 10 100 0 0 6 55 3 25 2 100 55 50
(Total detainees interviewed) 27 22 25 10 2 11 12 2 111

a: Sample sizes may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs

c: Includes methamphetamine, MDMA and other amphetamines

d: Includes heroin, methadone, buprenorphine and other opiates

Note: Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]