Australian Institute of Criminology

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Appendix A

Ethnic community representatives (one-on-one interview questions)
(1) Do you or your communities use ARS providers and, if so, what are the reasons behind the decision to do so?
(2) What are your views of the formal banking system (both banks and organisations such as credit unions)?
(3) Do you believe the formal system is:
(a) affordable
(b) quick
(c) reliable
(4) Under what circumstances would you or your community consider using the formal banking system in order to transfer money? Do you already do so?
(5) How do you believe the ARS system works?
(6) Do you or your community use more than one system?
(7) Are the ARS providers members of your community? Do you 'vet' them in any way before they are allowed to act as ARS providers within your community?
(8) Do you know how members of your community make contact with ARS providers?
(9) Do ARS providers advertise and, if so, how?
(10) Do you know how large the average remittance is?
(11) Do you know what the remittances are used for?
(12) Are they sent to individuals or communities?
(13) Do you know of any methods that people who send remittances may use to guard against their money being stolen or misused (eg for money laundering or terrorism)?
(14) Are you aware of any cases of this occurring?
(15) Does the sending of remittances decline with each generation?
(16) Does it increase?
(17) Are you aware of people bringing much money back into Australia through the remittance system? If so, what would such money be spent on?
(18) Is your community aware of the need for remittance providers to be registered with AUSTRAC?
(19) In your view, would the fact that an ARS provider was or was not registered with AUSTRAC make any difference to whether or not people in your community would use his services?
Ethnic community representatives (focus group questions)
(1) What have been your experiences of the Australian formal banking and financial system?
(2) Would you use it to transfer money and if not, why not?
(3) Why and how does your community use ARS providers?
(4) How do people in your community choose remittance providers?
(5) In your experience, how does the ARS system work?
(6) What are remittances used for in your country of origin?
(7) Is the system used to bring money or value back into Australia?
(8) Are you aware of any safeguards to stop the ARS system being used for criminal activity?
(9) Are you or your community aware of the need for ARS providers to be registered with AUSTRAC?
(10) What impact do you think such registration may have?
ARS providers (one-on-one interview questions)
(1) When did you start to provide remittance services and where do you operate?
(2) Are you a principal or an agent?
(3) How many employees do you have?
(4) How did you get into the remittance business?
(5) Do you provide only remittance services or do you provide other services?
(6) How does your remittance system work?
(7) Do you use a number of systems?
(8) In your experience, why do people send remittances?
(9) How much do you charge to send a remittance?
(10) What is the size of the average remittance that you send?
(11) How many remittances would you send a year?
(12) How many did you send last year? Is the number increasing?
(13) What is the total value of the remittances you send each year?
(14) What was the total value for last year? Is the total value increasing?
(15) How would you describe your client base?
(16) Do you send remittances for only one community?
(17) How do you verify the identity of the remittance sender?
(18) What sort of records are kept of the identity of the remittance sender and the transaction itself?
(19) Do you verify who is receiving the remittance?
(20) If so, how does this occur?
(21) How is the remittance sent to the recipient?
(22) How do they receive it?
(23) How often are funds lost?
(24) Do you know the cause?
(25) How do you ensure funds are not stolen or diverted (eg for activities like money laundering or terrorism)?
(26) Do you know what aspects of the AML/CTF Act and rules apply to your business?
(27) Do you believe your business is required to be registered with AUSTRAC?
(28) Do you believe AUSTRAC has provided sufficient guidance on the registration requirements for ARS providers?
(29) Are you currently registered with AUSTRAC?
(30) What are the factors behind your decision to register or not to register?
(31) If you are not registered and are not intending to, what factors do you think would increase the likelihood of you registering?
(32) Do you think you would lose clients if you registered?
(33) Do you believe government regulation is effective in lessening the risk of money laundering or the financing of terrorism?
(34) Do you believe ARS providers who have not registered should be prosecuted?