Australian Institute of Criminology

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Arranged marriage Distinct from forced marriage, an arranged marriage is organised by the families of both spouses, but consent is still present and the spouses have the right to accept or reject the marriage arrangement.

Debt bondage The status or condition that arises from a pledge by a person to repay a debt using their labour or services, but where that debt is deliberately excessive and the value of those services is not applied toward reducing the debt or the nature and length of the person’s services are not defined.

Forced labour The condition of a person who provides labour or services because of the use of coercion, threat or deception, or where the person is not free to leave or cease providing labour.

Forced marriage Marriage without the free and full consent of one or both parties to the marriage.

Human trafficking The recruitment, harbouring or receipt of persons through coercion, threat or deception, for the purpose of exploitation (ie slavery and conditions similar to slavery; see Introduction for full definition).

Related exploitation The exploitation element of human trafficking, which may be a standalone crime without the action and means elements being present or proven.

Servitude The status or condition of a person who is not free to cease providing labour or services, or is significantly deprived of personal freedom. Includes sexual servitude and domestic servitude.

Servile marriage The status or condition of being sold, transferred or inherited into marriage.

Slavery The status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised, including where such a condition results from a debt or contract.

Slavery-like practices Includes servitude, forced labour, forced marriage, servile marriage, and debt bondage.