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Appendices

Appendix A

Survey collection sites

New South Wales

In Sydney, Scarlet Alliance staff collectors (two Thai-speaking and one Korean-speaking) and steering committee members (four Thai speaking) spent three weeks collecting responses, targeting predominantly Thai brothels. This was supplemented by six collection sessions at the language clinics of the Sydney Sexual Health Centre (Korean and Thai speaking). A further six weeks of Chinese-targeted collection (by four Chinese-speaking steering committee members) and one week of Korean-targeted collection in Sydney followed. English-speaking Scarlet Alliance staff and trained collectors also collected surveys in Kings Cross, East Sydney and Surry Hills. English-speaking collectors from SWOP NSW administered surveys during their outreach sessions across Greater Sydney and Newcastle. The Newcastle collection was done in partnership with Thai-speaking Scarlet Alliance staff collectors.

Victoria

In Melbourne, key members of the steering committee who had a detailed understanding of the Melbourne sex worker landscape advised on which locations to focus to obtain survey participants. They were requested to provide information on locations to target, particularly in relation to unlicensed premises, Chinese, Korean and Thai brothels and locations where bad work conditions had been anecdotally reported, and/or which had been investigated by the police or immigration. Both licensed and unlicensed premises were targeted, as were Chinese and Thai parlours. This collection was conducted over two days by the Thai-speaking team of two, who targeted the Thai parlours, and a further five days by the Chinese-speaking team of two, who targeted the Chinese parlours. A Korean-speaking collector spent two days collecting surveys at the Melbourne Sexual Health Clinic. A further two days of collection occurred in Melbourne, which included collection at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre during its multicultural clinic, outreach to target brothel locations and an evening at a street drop-in service.

Queensland

Survey collection in Townsville was conducted with a trained peer collector (Japanese-speaking) based in north Queensland and accompanied by a Scarlet Alliance staff collector (Korean-speaking). Two days of collection were undertaken in Toowoomba by the Korean-speaking Scarlet Alliance staff collector. The Brisbane collection was conducted over four days by Scarlet Alliance staff collectors (Korean and English-speaking) and a trained collector from Respect Inc. (Chinese-speaking).

South Australia

In Adelaide, Scarlet Alliance staff (Korean-speaking), in partnership with a Chinese-speaking multicultural project officer from the Sex Industry Network (SIN), conducted outreach targeting private sex workers in Adelaide suburbs for the purposes of collection. This project officer and trained SIN staff continued with collection during their regular outreach sessions.

Australian Capital Territory

A trained outreach worker (English-speaking) from SWOP ACT collected surveys during regular outreach visits in the region. Scarlet Alliance staff collectors (English, Korean and Thai-speaking) accompanied outreach sessions on two occasions specifically targeting Asian brothels.

Western Australia

Collection in Perth and Kalgoorlie was conducted by Scarlet Alliance staff collectors (English and Korean-speaking) over five days in total. This included a day at the Magenta sexual health clinic for sex workers.

During the five days, two days of collection were conducted in Perth by the Scarlet Alliance staff collectors (English and Korean-speaking). They were joined for a further day in Perth by Scarlet Alliance staff (English, Korean and Thai-speaking) and a trained Respect Inc. collector (Chinese-speaking). The Scarlet Alliance staff collector (English-speaking) and Respect Inc. collector did another two days in Perth while the Scarlet Alliance staff collectors (Korean and Thai-speaking) conducted surveys for two days in Kalgoorlie.

Appendix B

Missing responses

Table A Survey questions and missing responses
Question number Wording Question Type Number of missing responses Percentage Total sample
1 How old are you? Multiple choice 2 0.3 592
2 What gender are you? Multiple choice 0 0.0 592
3 What country were you born in? Multiple choice 3 0.5 592
3a What region in this country were you born in? Open ended 294a 49.7 592
4 What country would you identify as your home country? Multiple choice 17 2.9 592
5 What languages do you speak at work? Multiple choice 7 1.2 592
6 How well do you speak English? Multiple choice 8 1.4 592
7 What is your present relationship status? Multiple choice 17 2.9 592
8 How many children do you have? Open ended 142a 24.0 592
8a Of these children, how many are under 14 years? Open ended 204a 34.5 592
9 What is the highest level qualification you have completed? Multiple choice 11 1.9 592
10 What country were you living in before you arrived in Australia? Multiple choice 97b 16.4 592
10a What region in this country were you living in? Open ended 397a 67.1 592
11 What was your main occupation before coming to Australia? Multiple choice 10 2.4 412
12 What are the main reasons you left your home country? Multiple choice 4 1.0 412
13 Have you ever done sex work in a country other than Australia? Multiple choice 24 5.8 412
13a If you answered Yes, list this country/these countries in the space below. Open ended 34 8.3 412
14 Is this the first time you have done sex work in Australia? Multiple choice 52 8.8 592
15 Did you do any of the following to help you enter Australia? Multiple choice 139b 23.5a 592
16 How do you spend the majority of your income? Multiple choice 50 8.5 592
16a If you ticked Pay debts in Australia or Pay debts in home country, was this debt incurred by travelling to Australia or securing your current job? Multiple choice 67a 11.3 592
17 Who helped you secure your visa? Multiple choice 138b 23.3a 592
18 Were the people who helped you secure your visa based in Australia? Multiple choice 81a 19.7 412
18a If you answered No or that There were people based in Australia and another country in question 18, please list the country/countries where they were based in the space below. Open ended 154a 37.4 412
19 Were you accompanied by any of the following people when you travelled to Australia? Multiple choice 20 4.9 412
20 What is your intended length of stay? Multiple choice 15 3.6 412
21 Do you think you will want to come back to Australia to work again? Multiple choice 37 9.0 412
21a If you answered No, please list your reasons in the space below. Open ended 78a 18.9 412
22 Did you come to Australia instead of a country in the following regions? Multiple choice 78a 18.9 412
23 Why did you decide to come to Australia? Multiple choice 10 2.4 412
24 How much did it cost for you to travel (including air fares), enter and start working in Australia? Open ended 200a 48.5 412
25 Is your current income in Australia better than in your home country? Multiple choice 46a 11.2 412
26 Are you satisfied with your income in Australia? Multiple choice 95a 16.1 592
26a If you answered No, please list your reasons for this in the space below. Open ended 122a 20.6 592
27 On average, how many hours do you work most days? Multiple choice 13 2.2 592
28 On average, how many days do you work most weeks? Multiple choice 14 2.4 592
29 How many clients do you see in a week? Multiple choice 31 5.2 592
30 If you had a choice, would you change the number of clients you see? Multiple choice 24 4.1 592
31 What type of workplace/s are you currently working in? Multiple choice 15 2.5 592
32 Do you get paid regularly? Multiple choice 14 2.4 592
32a If you answered No, please explain when you get paid and the reasons for this arrangement. Multiple choice 49 8.3 592
33 What proportion of your wage do you personally receive? Multiple choice 215a 36.3 592
34 How do your current working conditions (ie treatment by co-workers and clients, wages, living arrangements, hours and amount of work etc) compare to what you expected them to be? Multiple choice 212a 35.8 592
35 If you have ever been on a contract for sex work in Australia, did your actual working conditions reflect the terms of this contract? Multiple choice 165a 27.9 592
36 Do you have easy access to your passport? Multiple choice 12 2.9 412
37 Does your workplace allow you to refuse clients? Multiple choice 28 4.7 592
38 Out of your own money, which of the following does your workplace charge you for? Multiple choice 133a 22.5 592
39 Have you experienced any of the following in the workplace? Multiple choice 183a 30.9 592
40 What advice would you give to someone considering coming to Australia for sex work? Open ended 423a 71.5 592
41 What are the racial backgrounds of the clients that you see? Multiple choice 50 8.4 592
42 Are there reasons why you wouldn’t use condoms while working? Multiple choice 52 8.8 592
43 Have you ever been arrested by the police for sex work in Australia? Multiple choice 36 6.1 592
44 Have you ever had the Department of Immigration and Citizenship come to your workplace? Multiple choice 57 9.6 592
45 Please read the following statements. Please circle one response only. Yes if you agree with them, No if you disagree or Sometimes if you conditionally agree with the statements. [NB: Statements asked whether it was legal to be fined if you take a day off work and whether it was legal for your boss or anyone else to stop you from leaving your job if you want to.] Multiple choice 63a 10.6 592
46 Please indicate whether you have heard of and would use any of the following services. [NB: Services included sex worker organisations and services.] Multiple choice 215a 36.3 592
47 What are the reasons for any difficulty you’ve had in accessing any of the services listed above? Open ended 158a 26.7 592
48 Please circle the main place you would contact for the issues listed in the following table; working conditions. Multiple choice 228a 38.5 592
48 Please circle the main place you would contact for the issues listed in the following table; violence. Multiple choice 236a 39.9 592
48 Please circle the main place you would contact for the issues listed in the following table; domestic violence. Multiple choice 254a 42.9 592
48 Please circle the main place you would contact for the issues listed in the following table; victim of crime. Multiple choice 253a 42.7 592
48 Please circle the main place you would contact for the issues listed in the following table; involvement with a criminal incident. Multiple choice 272a 45.9 592
48 Please circle the main place you would contact for the issues listed in the following table; visa issues. Multiple choice 288a 48.6 592
48 Please circle the main place you would contact for the issues listed in the following table; financial problems. Multiple choice 251a 42.4 592
48 Please circle the main place you would contact for the issues listed in the following table; sexual assault. Multiple choice 249a 42.1 592
48 Please circle the main place you would contact for the issues listed in the following table; health issues. Multiple choice 274a 46.3 592
49 What do you think of interpreter services in Australia? Multiple choice 116a 19.6 592
50 Do you find it easy to access information and/or services in the language you mainly use at home? Multiple choice 124a 20.9 592
51 Where do you get your general information from in Australia? Multiple choice 94a 15.5 592

a: Question had a ‘high’ non-response rate (10% or more)

b: Question had a high non-response rate out of all respondents, but not for migrant respondents. This is relevant only to questions that were directed at migrant respondents, but had an option for non-migrants to select from (therefore relevant to both groups). See Notes below

Notes: For question 10, the missing responses for migrant respondents equalled n=8 (1.9%). For question 15, the missing responses for migrant respondents equalled n=38 (9.2%). For question 17, the missing responses for migrant respondents equalled n=36 (8.7%). For question 34, the missing responses for migrant respondents equalled n=139 (33.7%). For question 49, the missing responses for migrant respondents equalled n=77 (18.7%). For question 50, the missing responses for migrant respondents equalled n=77 (18.7%). Due to survey print errors, seven respondents received a survey without questions 40–45 (inclusive); these respondents were recorded as ‘missing’ responses to these questions. Due to a survey print error, one respondent received a survey without questions 46–51 (inclusive); this respondent was recorded as ‘missing’ responses to these questions. Due to survey print error, ten respondents received a survey without the first two multiple choice responses to question 51; these respondents were recorded as ‘missing’ responses to this question

Appendix C

Data analysis

All data collected from the surveys were categorical in nature; therefore, chi-square was the most appropriate test for significance. Chi-square analysis can be used to measure the independence of two categorical variables—that is, whether or not a variable influences the frequency of another variable. In this way, the frequency distribution of two categories of one variable to the categories of another can be compared for significant differences.

Each observed frequency is compared with an ‘expected’ frequency. This expected frequency is the frequency that should be observed if the variables were unrelated to each other. The difference between observed and expected is assessed for significance, which determines whether the difference is related to chance or the nature of the variable. This difference is called the adjusted residual; when it is <–1.96 or >1.96, the expected frequency is considered significantly different from the observed.

For 2×2 comparisons, the Yates-adjusted chi-square measure was the most appropriate to account for the small cell numbers. It is a more conservative measure of chi-square.

All analyses and data cleaning were conducted using the statistical computer software STATA.

Appendix D

Migrant sex workers in New Zealand

A survey of 124 New Zealand-based migrant sex workers was conducted in 2012 using a similar methodology and nearly identical survey tool to that used in this research project (Roguski 2013). The survey was developed and administered by the New Zealand Prostitutes’ Collective (Roguski 2013). The majority (80%) of migrant sex workers surveyed were born in Asia (Roguski 2013) and knew they were going to New Zealand when they left their home country. Of those who did not expect to be going to New Zealand, this appeared to be due to the respondents’ not being certain of their self-organised travel arrangements at the time they left their home country (Roguski 2013). While substantial sums were expended by some respondents in travelling to New Zealand, the highest costs were attributed to fees for tertiary-level study (Roguski 2013). There was no indication evident from the survey responses of employers imposing indebtedness on migrant workers.

The majority of respondents reported working for commercial workplaces (ie brothels, escort agencies or massage parlours). The majority reported they were not on a contract but were being paid regularly (Roguski 2013). There was a high level of income satisfaction, and those who were not satisfied cited high living expenses in New Zealand as the reason for the dissatisfaction (Roguski 2013). Migrant respondents reported working long hours—most commonly up to six to 10 hours a day, five or six days a week, seeing 10 to 19 clients a week (Roguski 2013). However, one-third of respondents still wanted to see more clients (Roguski 2013).

There was some indication of restricted freedoms and a lack of knowledge of workplace rights, although this was evident only among a minority of respondents (Roguski 2013). Five percent were working in a workplace that did not allow the refusal of clients; just less than 10 percent indicated that they thought it was legal for their workplace to fine them, and five percent did not have easy access to their passport (Roguski 2013). Migrant respondents also demonstrated difficulties with accessing the services provided by the New Zealand Prostitutes’ Collective—mainly because of a lack of knowledge about these services. Only 40 percent stated that they had no difficulty in accessing these services (Roguski 2013).