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New South Wales

The NSW student sample

Between 2005 and 2009 inclusive, 136,861 international students from the five source countries were identified as having commenced study at an institution or course located in New South Wales (see Table 18). This includes students who commenced study prior to 2005, but were known to be continuing their studies in New South Wales in 2005. Overall, New South Wales accounted for 35 percent of international students studying in Australia between 2005 and 2009.

The vast majority of students studying in New South Wales were from the People's Republic of China (n=70,417; 51%), followed by India (n=31,216; 23%), the United States (n=15,950; 11%), Korea (n=14,031; 10%) and Malaysia (n=5,607; 4%).

Over the five year period, the number of international students studying in New South Wales remained relatively stable, except in 2009 when the number declined by a total of 4,718 students (down 16% on the previous year). This overall decline in 2009 was largely driven by a significant reduction in the number of students from India; down 42 percent on the previous year.

Table 18: Annual student arrivals by gender and country, New South Wales, 2005–09 (n)
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTotal
2005 4,434 7,560 1,631 628 226 14,479
2006 4,517 6,503 1,865 597 1,529 15,011
2007 5,555 6,432 1,211 505 1,511 15,214
2008 5,840 6,671 886 484 1,484 15,365
2009 3,136 6,226 776 520 1,466 12,124
Total 23,482 33,392 6,369 2,734 6,216 72,193
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTotal
2005 830 8,679 1,980 624 260 12,373
2006 1,134 7,273 2,264 595 2,330 13,596
2007 1,628 6,557 1,489 533 2,341 12,548
2008 2,482 7,386 1,031 589 2,326 13,814
2009 1,660 7,130 898 532 2,117 12,337
Total 7,734 37,025 7,662 2,873 9,374 64,668
All students
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTotal
2005 5,264 16,239 3,611 1,252 486 26,852
2006 5,651 13,776 4,129 1,192 3,859 28,607
2007 7,183 12,989 2,700 1,038 3,852 27,762
2008 8,322 14,057 1,917 1,073 3,810 29,179
2009 4,796 13,356 1,674 1,052 3,583 24,461
Total 31,216 70,417 14,031 5,607 15,590 136,861

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Estimating the 'at-risk' student population

For the reasons described in the Methodology, the calculation of victimisation rates required a reliable estimate of the 'at-risk' population in each year and for each of the five international student source countries; in this case, a summary estimate of the number of students who studied within New South Wales for the entire 365 days in each year. It was calculated as the sum of the number of days all students were 'at risk' within the relevant year, divided by 365. These estimates were notionally larger than those presented above because students were not only counted in the year in which they arrive, but also counted in any subsequent years of study.

Overall, the distribution of 'at-risk' students is roughly equal with the distribution among student arrivals for all countries (see Figure 15). The United States, although having the third largest number of arrivals overall, nevertheless had the lowest or second lowest at-risk population across the five year period. The Republic of Korea on the other hand, which in most years had fewer arrivals than the United States, nevertheless had more than double the number of students 'at-risk' in each year. One probable explanation is that students from the United States study in Australia for shorter periods of time and therefore have less 'at-risk' time over multiple years. Averaged across the five years, Malaysian students constituted the smallest student group in New South Wales.

Figure 15: Annual student arrivals and estimated annual at-risk population by country of birth, New South Wales (%)

Figure 15: Annual student arrivals and estimated annual at-risk population by country of birth, New South Wales (%)

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

It is important to note that despite a decline in student arrivals in 2009, the number of 'at-risk' students remained, on average, higher than any other previous year. This is because the 'at-risk' population represents both new and continuing students (not just new arrivals) and therefore, the impact of any decline in arrival numbers would not be entirely observed until after existing, continuing students complete their studies and leave Australia or transfer to alternative visas.

Finally, the last column presented in Table 19 provides comparative population estimates for the annualised NSW population aged between 15 and 44 years. These estimates are derived from the ABS population census projections and are used as the basis on which statewide victimisation rates are calculated (with the exception of the other theft category).

Table 19: Estimated annual at-risk population by gender, New South Wales, 2005–09 (n)
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesNSW population
Total at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year persons
2005 1,053,549 2,886 1,708,052 4,680 352,536 966 152,886 419 43,762 120 n/a 1,454,440
2006 2,370,557 6,495 3,991,088 10,934 994,612 2,725 365,917 1,003 414,100 1,135 n/a 1,459,794
2007 3,417,227 9,362 5,203,242 14,255 1,279,736 3,506 449,555 1,232 469,162 1,285 n/a 1,466,042
2008 4,654,102 12,751 6,499,593 17,807 1,382,484 3,788 494,707 1,355 501,231 1,373 n/a 1,471,764
2009 5,083,232 13,927 7,441,389 20,387 1,325,468 3,631 546,877 1,498 487,985 1,337 n/a 1,478,729
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesNSW population
Total at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year persons
2005 178,363 489 1,958,387 5,365 408,844 1,120 152,622 418 51,815 142 n/a 1,478,429
2006 501,605 1,374 4,512,832 12,364 1,206,003 3,304 366,283 1,004 613,015 1,679 n/a 1,431,047
2007 841,950 2,307 5,707,938 15,638 1,504,248 4,121 456,320 1,250 684,534 1,875 n/a 1,435,085
2008 1,362,064 3,732 6,868,464 18,818 1,573,219 4,310 536,508 1,470 723,140 1,981 n/a 1,438,761
2009 1,832,779 5,021 7,865,790 21,550 1,468,656 4,024 594,307 1,628 643,353 1,763 n/a 1,443,622
All students
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesNSW population
Total at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year persons
2005 123,1912 3,375 3,666,439 10,045 761,380 2,086 305,508 837 95,577 262 n/a 2,932,869
2006 2,872,162 7,869 8,503,920 23,298 2,200,615 6,029 732,200 2,006 1,027,115 2,814 n/a 2,890,841
2007 4,259,177 11,669 10,911,180 29,894 2,783,984 7,627 905,875 2,482 1,153,696 3,161 n/a 2,901,127
2008 6,016,166 16,483 13,368,057 36,625 2,955,703 8,098 103,1215 2,825 1,224,371 3,354 n/a 2,910,525
2009 6,916,011 18,948 15,307,179 41,937 2,794,124 7,655 1,141,184 3,127 1,131,338 3,100 n/a 2,922,351

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

The international student groups arriving to study in New South Wales were not homogenous, varying significantly in both gender and age. In terms of gender, just over half of all students arriving in New South Wales were male (53%); however, males arrivals from India substantially outnumbered female arrivals over the five year period (75% vs 25%). Conversely, female students typically outnumbered males arriving from the United States (59% vs 41%), the Republic of Korea (55% vs 45%) and the People's Republic of China (53% vs 47%). The gender differential was roughly equal for students arriving from Malaysia (51% female vs 49% male).

These patterns were also generally consistent for the calculated annual 'at-risk' populations, where in 2009 for example, male students from India comprised 73 percent of the total Indian 'at-risk' population and female students from the People's Republic of China comprised (51%) of the Chinese 'at-risk' population. For the other countries, in 2009, there were more 'at-risk' female students than male students.

In terms of age, the vast majority of all students were aged between 20 and 35 years. In 2009, this age group comprised 93 percent of 'at-risk' students from India, 88 percent from the United States, 81 percent from Malaysia, 74 percent of students from the People's Republic of China and 73 percent from the Republic of Korea. Younger students (those aged between 15 and 19 years) were disproportionally over-represented among those from the People's Republic of China (22%) and the Republic of Korea (18%) when compared with Malaysia (14%), the United States (10%) and India (6%).

Even more telling was the joint age and gender distribution for each country in 2009, with approximately 42 percent of all 'at-risk' students from India being males aged between 20 and 24 years (see Table 20). By contrast, the single age/gender combination with the highest proportional population of 'at-risk' students was, for all other countries, females aged 25 to 34 years.

Finally, it is important to note the comparative differences in age and gender for each international student group when compared with the NSW population. Specifically, 51 percent of the NSW population aged between 15 and 44 years was male; 49 percent was female. Two-thirds of the population (combined and separate male and female populations) were aged over 25 years; one-third were aged over 35 years. Only 16 percent of the 15–44 year old population in New South Wales was aged between 20 and 24 years—substantially lower than students from India (54%), the People's Republic of China (55%), Malaysia (58%) and the United States (74%).

Table 20: Age distribution of the annual at-risk population by gender and country, New South Wales, 2009a
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesNSW population
Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%
15–19 yrs 954 7 5,720 28 682 20 230 16 123 9 238,917 16
20–24 yrs 7,998 57 10,836 53 894 26 884 60 952 72 239,624 16
25–34 yrs 4,848 35 3,730 18 1,600 47 295 20 216 16 495,585 34
35–44 yrs 122 1 80 0 220 6 62 4 37 3 504,603 34
Total 13,922 20,366 3,396 1,471 1,328 1,478,729
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesNSW population
Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%
15–19 yrs 213 4 4,777 22 575 15 203 13 178 10 224,895 16
20–24 yrs 2,188 44 12,385 58 1,145 30 910 57 1,324 76 227,718 16
25–34 yrs 2,486 50 4,068 19 1,599 42 406 25 217 12 485,281 34
35–44 yrs 130 3 276 1 465 12 87 5 25 1 505,728 35
Total 5,017 21,506 3,784 1,606 1,744 1,443,622
All students
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesNSW population
Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%
15–18 yrs 1,166 6 10,498 25 1,258 18 433 14 301 10 463,812 16
19–24 yrs 10,186 54 23,221 55 2,038 28 1,794 58 2,277 74 467,342 16
25–34 yrs 7,334 39 7,798 19 3,199 45 701 23 433 14 980,866 34
35–44 yrs 252 1 357 1 685 10 149 5 62 2 1,010,331 35
Total 18,938 41,874 7,180 3,077 3,073 2,922,351

a: Totals may include students aged outside of the specified age ranges and therefore may not sum

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Experience of assault

Rate of assault victimisation

Comparison of assault data presented in this chapter with that of any other jurisdiction is not advised. Assault data is not collected or recorded consistently between the jurisdictions, thus significantly limiting the reliability of cross-jurisdictional comparisons. It is for this reason that national comparisons are not provided in this report.

Males

Between 2005 and 2009, the estimated (weighted) rate of assault for males across New South Wales ranged from between 27 and 30 incidents per 1,000 of the population (see Table 21). The lowest rate of assault occurred in 2009; the highest rate occurred in 2007.

For male international students, the estimated assault rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • eleven and 16 incidents for male students from India;
  • four and five incidents for male students from the People's Republic of China;
  • three and eight incidents for male students from the Republic of Korea;
  • one and seven incidents for male students from Malaysia; and
  • eight and 14 incidents for male students from the United States.

Examination of the relevant confidence intervals for each annual estimate reveals the following key conclusions:

  • In nearly all cases, the rate of assault among all international students groups was lower than the average for similarly aged males across New South Wales.
  • The rate of assault among male Indian students was higher in all years compared with students from the People's Republic of China and in most years (from 2006 onwards) compared with students from the Republic of Korea.
  • The rate of assault was not higher for male Indian students compared with students from the United States in all years.

Females

Females across New South Wales experienced an estimated (weighted) rate of assault of between 19 and 23 incidents per 1,000 of the population. The lowest rate was recorded in 2005; the highest in 2007 and 2008. In 2009, the most recent year of available data, the estimated rate of assault declined to 21 incidents per 1,000.

For female international students, the estimated assault rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • four and nine incidents for female students from India;
  • three and four incidents for female students from the People's Republic of China;
  • one and six incidents for female students from the Republic of Korea;
  • two and four incidents for female students from Malaysia; and
  • one and seven incidents for female students from the United States.

As was the case for male students, examination of the confidence intervals illustrated that in nearly all cases, the rate of assault victimisation among international students was lower than the average for similarly aged females across New South Wales.

Further, the confidence intervals indicate little statistical difference between the five source counties, the exception being in the more recent years (2008 and 2009) where the rate of assault among female Indian students was statistically higher than students from the People's Republic of China.

Table 21: Rate of assault by gender and country, New South Wales, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesNSW population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 34 14.6 21 4.1 6 8.1^ 1 2.4^^ 0 27.5
(10.5–19.7) (2.4–6.3) (3.3–16.7) (0.1–13.5) (27.3)–27.8)
2006 103 15.7 43 3.8 11 4.4^ 4 5.0^^ 14 14.1^ 29.0
(12.8–19.1) (2.7–5.1) (2.2–7.8) (1.6–11.8) (8.1–22.9) (28.7–29.3)
2007 117 12.1 67 5.1 25 5.2 7 5.7^ 11 7.8^ 30.5
(10.0–14.5) (4.0–6.4) (3.0–8.3) (2.3–11.8) (3.7–14.4) (30.2–30.8)
2008 162 10.9 72 4.0 7 2.5^ 2 1.5^^ 15 8.8^ 27.6
(9.2–12.9) (3.1–5.0) (1.2–4.8) (0.2–5.4) (4.5–15.4) (27.3–27.9)
2009 187 12.2 77 4.0 16 5.0^ 9 7.5^ 14 9.8^ 26.7
(10.4–14.2) (3.2–4.9) (2.9–8.0) (3.7–13.4) (5.2–16.7) (26.4–27.0)
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesNSW population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 2 4.1^^ 20 3.5 2 1.0^^ 0 1 7.4^^ 19.5
(0.5–14.8) (2.1–5.5) (0.0–5.4) (0.2–41.0) (19.3–19.8)
2006 7 5.8^ 36 2.9 3 1.0^^ 4 3.0^^ 5 2.4^ 22.3
(2.5–11.5) (2.0–4.0) (0.2–2.8) (0.6–8.9) (0.7–6.1) (22.0–22.5)
2007 10 4.8^ 47 3.2 13 2.3^ 4 4.1^^ 9 4.8^ 22.9
(2.4–8.5) (2.4–4.2) (1.1–4.4) (1.3–9.5) (2.2–9.1) (22.7–23.2)
2008 25 9.0 51 3.1 24 6.1 3 2.1^^ 3 1.0^^ 22.6
(6.1–13.0) (2.3–4.0) (4.0–9.1) (0.4–6.1) (0.1–3.7) (22.4–22.9)
2009 41 7.4 71 3.5 12 2.6^ 3 1.9^^ 6 4.0^ 21.1
(5.2–10.2) (2.8–4.4) (1.3–4.9) (0.4–5.5) (1.6–8.3) (20.9–21.4)

^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 25% should be interpreted with caution

^^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 50% should be interpreted with extreme caution

(n–n) The numbers in parentheses beneath the point estimates (rates) indicate the lower and upper band confidence intervals

Note: Comparison of this data with that of any other jurisdiction is not advised. Assault data is not collected or recorded consistently between the jurisdictions, thus significantly limiting the reliability of cross-jurisdictional comparisons. It is for this reason that national comparisons are not provided in this report

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Location of assault

Comparative analysis of assaults against male students from each of the five source countries revealed a number of interesting findings:

  • For all male students, the location most frequently recorded for assaults was 'street/open space', although the frequency varied by country (see Table 22). Street/open space location was recorded for 54 percent of assaults among male students from the United States, 48 percent for male students from Malaysia, 46 percent for male students from the Republic of Korea, 41 percent for male students from the People's Republic of China and 37 percent of assaults among male Indian students.
  • The second most frequently recorded location for assaults against male Indian students in New South Wales was in the commercial retail sector (22%). This was disproportionately higher than for male students from the People's Republic of China (6%), Malaysia (4%), the Republic of Korea (3%) and the United States (2%). Overall, commercial locations (including retail, hospitality and financial services) comprised nearly one-third of all assaults recorded for Indian male students in New South Wales (29%).
  • Residential assaults were more frequently recorded among male students from the People's Republic of China (22%) and the Republic of Korea (21%), compared with male students from India (15%), Malaysia (9%) and the United States (7%).
  • One in 10 assaults recorded for male students from India occurred on or near public transport facilities—including taxis and taxi ranks (11%). This was more than twice the proportion recorded for male students from the People's Republic of China, Malaysia and the United States.

The number of recorded assaults against female in New South Wales is relatively small and so comparative analysis is limited. However, the findings indicate a number of key points:

  • Students from India, the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Korea were most likely to experience assault at a residential location (70%, 54% and 52% respectively).
  • Assaults against students from the United States and Malaysia were more recently recorded as having occurred on the street of in open spaces (80% and 67% respectively).
    Table 22: Location of recorded assaults by gender and country, New South Wales, 2005–09
    Males
    IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
    n%n%n%n%n%
    Street/open space 206 37 102 41 29 46 11 48 29 54
    Residential 85 15 55 22 13 21 2 9 4 7
    Commercial—Retail 121 22 15 6 2 3 1 4 1 2
    Commercial—Hospitality/entertainment 27 5 26 10 10 16 4 17 15 28
    Commercial—Financial services 1 0 0 0 0
    Commercial—Other 12 2 4 2 0 1 4 0
    Public transport 63 11 11 4 4 6 1 4 1 2
    Educational 4 1 12 5 1 2 1 4 1 2
    Other 32 6 26 10 4 6 2 9 3 6
    Total 551 251 63 23 54
    Females
    IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
    n%n%n%n%n%
    Street/open space 12 16 51 25 13 27 8 67 10 80
    Residential 54 70 112 54 25 52 1 8 3 10
    Commercial—Retail 2 3 9 4 5 10 0 0 2
    Commercial—Hospitality/entertainment 1 1 9 4 2 4 2 17 3
    Commercial—Financial services 0 0 0 0 0
    Commercial—Other 1 1 1 0 0 0
    Public transport 6 8 13 6 1 2 0 0
    Educational 1 1 4 2 0 0 2
    Other 0 7 3 2 4 1 8 2 10
    Total 77 206 48 12 22

    Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

  • Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Temporal pattern of assault

The majority of assaults against male international students occurred between the hours of 8 pm and 4 am, although some differences were identified between the five countries (see Table 23). Those most likely to be assaulted during these hours were male students from the United States (91%), followed by students from India (59%), Malaysia (57%) and the People's Republic of China (53%). Male students from the Republic of Korea were the only group where less than half (38%) of recorded assaults occurred between the evening hours of 8 pm and 4 am. Instead, 22 percent of male Korean students were assaulted in the early morning hours of 4 am and 8 am, which was higher than for Malaysian students (9%), Indian students (7%), Chinese students (6%) and US students (4%).

Table 23: Time of day of assaults by gender and country, New South Wales, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 142 26 50 20 16 25 8 35 40 74
4 am–8 am 41 7 16 6 14 22 2 9 2 4
8 am–noon 30 5 17 7 5 8 1 4 0
Noon–4 pm 47 9 34 14 6 10 2 9 2 4
4 pm–8 pm 107 19 52 21 14 22 5 22 1 2
8 pm–midnight 184 33 82 33 8 13 5 22 9 17
Total 551 251 63 23 54
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 10 13 29 14 11 23 4 33 12 55
4 am–8 am 1 1 9 4 4 8 1 8 2 9
8 am–noon 15 19 31 15 1 2 0 0
Noon–4 pm 8 10 34 16 8 17 2 17 1 5
4 pm–8 pm 22 29 47 22 10 21 1 8 2 9
8 pm–midnight 21 27 60 29 14 29 4 33 5 23
Total 77 210 48 12 22

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Daytime assaults (between 8 am and 4 pm) were relatively infrequent among all male student groups, but less so among students from India (14%), Malaysia (13%) and the United States (4%), compared with students from the People's Republic of China (21%) and Republic of Korea (18%).

Assaults against female international students in New South Wales were more often recorded as having occurred during the day time and early evening (between 8 am to 8 pm)—this was the case for 58 percent of assaults against female Indian students, 53 percent of Chinese students and 40 percent of Korean students. The exception was for female students from the United States and Malaysia, for which 78 percent and 66 percent of assaults, respectively, occurred during the late evening and early morning hours between 8 pm to 4 am.

Analysis by day of the week on which assaults were recorded showed no remarkable findings (see Table 24). The weekend period (Friday, Saturday and Sunday) typically accounted for the majority of assaults against male students from India (54%), the Republic of Korea (54%) and the People's Republic of China (53%). For male students from Malaysia and the United States, assaults were more evenly distributed across the week.

Table 24: Day of week of assaults by gender and country, New South Wales, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 123 22 35 14 11 17 3 13 9 17
Monday 79 14 36 14 8 13 2 9 11 20
Tuesday 58 11 22 9 11 17 4 17 2 4
Wednesday 69 13 32 13 7 11 3 13 4 7
Thursday 47 9 28 11 3 5 3 13 10 18
Friday 67 12 31 12 10 16 4 17 9 17
Saturday 108 20 67 27 13 21 4 17 9 17
Total 551 251 63 23 54
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 15 19 32 16 12 25 0 5 23
Monday 6 8 35 17 7 15 2 17 0
Tuesday 10 13 25 12 4 8 0 3 14
Wednesday 10 13 27 13 4 8 1 8 1 4
Thursday 4 5 24 12 4 8 4 33 4 18
Friday 17 22 28 14 10 21 1 8 5 23
Saturday 15 19 35 17 7 15 4 33 4 18
Total 77 206 48 12 22

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Experience of robbery

Rate of robbery victimisation

Males

Between 2005 and 2009, the estimated (weighted) rate of robbery for males across New South Wales ranged from between three and five incidents per 1,000 of the population (see Table 25). The lowest rate was recorded in 2009; the highest rate was recorded in 2006 and 2007.

For male international students, the estimated robbery rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • nineteen and 47 incidents for male students from India;
  • four and 11 incidents for male students from the People's Republic of China;
  • two and eight incidents for male students from the Republic of Korea;
  • eight and 14 incidents for male students from Malaysia; and
  • one and three incidents for male students from the United States.

With the exception of the United States, the rate of robbery has generally declined over the 2005–09 period. For male students from India, the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Korea in particular, 2009 saw the lowest recorded rate of robbery since the beginning of the series in 2005.

Examination of the relevant confidence intervals for each annual estimate reveals the following key conclusions:

  • The rate of robbery experienced by Indian male students was significantly higher in all years compared with males from each of the four other countries, as well as the NSW population average. This is despite a substantial decline in robbery rates over the five year period.
  • The rate of robbery experienced by male students from the People's Republic of China, while lower than for their Indian counterparts, was significantly higher than the NSW average in all years except 2009.
  • Male students from Malaysia experienced robbery at a rate significant higher than the NSW average in 2005 and 2006, but not in the most recent years where the rate of robbery has declined.
  • When compared with other countries, male students from the United States experienced the lowest rate of robbery in all years except 2007. The rate of robbery was also lower, but not statistically different from the NSW average.

Females

Females across New South Wales experienced an estimated (weighted) rate of robbery of 1 incident per 1,000 of the population. This was consistent over the five years between 2005 and 2009. For female international students, the estimated robbery rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population was between:

  • three and five incidents for female students from India;
  • one and 1.5 incidents for female students from the People's Republic of China;
  • two and four incidents for female students from the Republic of Korea;
  • one and two incidents for female students from Malaysia; and
  • 0.5 and 1.5 incidents for female students from the United States.

There were only few instances where the rate of robbery among female international students was significantly higher than the NSW population average. These were:

  • Indian females in 2006 (5 per 1,000) and 2009 (5 per 1,000); and
  • Korean females in 2006 (4 per 1,000).
    Table 25: Rate of robbery by gender and country, New South Wales, 2005–09
    Males
    IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesNSW population average
    nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
    2005 128 47.1 46 10.7 7 8.1^ 5 14.5^ 0 4.4
    (39.5–55.7) (7.9–14.1) (3.3–16.7) (5.3–31.6) (4.3–4.6)
    2006 193 30.3 88 8.0 13 5.6^ 8 11.1^ 3 2.6^^ 4.8
    (26.2–34.9) (6.4–9.8) (3.0–9.3) (5.5–19.8) (0.5–7.7) (4.7–4.9)
    2007 247 26.7 100 6.9 22 6.4 1 0.8^^ 2 2.3^^ 4.9
    (23.5–30.2) (5.6–8.4) (3.9–9.7) (0.0–4.6) (0.5–6.8) (4.8–5.0)
    2008 240 19.0 100 5.7 11 3.7^ 5 3.7^ 3 2.2^^ 4.2
    (16.7–21.5) (4.7–7.0) (2.0–6.3) (1.2–8.7) (0.5–6.4) (4.1–4.3)
    2009 254 18.9 80 4.0 11 2.1^ 4 2.7^^ 2 1.5^^ 3.5
    (16.7–21.3) (3.2–5.0) (0.8–4.2) (0.7–7.0) (0.2–5.4) (3.4–3.6)
    Females
    IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesNSW population average
    nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
    2005 2 4.1^^ 18 1.1 4 3.9^^ 1 2.4^^ 0 1.3
    (0.5–14.8) (0.4–2.4) (1.1–9.9) (0.1–13.4) (1.2–1.4)
    2006 6 5.1^ 27 1.3 8 3.9^ 1 1.0^^ 2 0.6^^ 1.3
    (2.1–10.5) (0.7–2.1) (2.0–6.7) (0.0–5.7) (0.0–3.3) (1.3–1.4)
    2007 8 3.5^ 44 1.1 8 2.3^ 3 2.4^^ 2 0.5^^ 1.3
    (1.5–6.8) (0.6–1.7) (1.1–4.4) (0.5–7.1) (0.0–3.0) (1.2–1.4)
    2008 9 2.8^ 60 1.5 10 2.7^ 2 1.4^^ 5 1.5^ 1.2
    (1.3–5.3) (1.0–2.2) (1.3–4.8) (0.2–5.0) (0.3–4.5) (1.2–1.3)
    2009 24 5.2 48 0.9 5 1.9^ 3 1.9^^ 1 0.6^^ 1.0
    (3.4–7.6) (0.6–1.4) (0.7–3.8) (0.4–5.5) (0.0–3.2) (0.9–1.0)

    ^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 25% should be interpreted with caution

    ^^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 50% should be interpreted with extreme caution

    (n–n) The numbers in parentheses beneath the point estimates (rates) indicate the lower and upper band confidence intervals

    Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Location of robbery

Comparative analysis of robberies recorded against male students from each of the five source countries reveals a number of interesting findings:

  • For all male students, the location most frequently recorded for robbery was 'street/open space', although the frequency varied by country (see Table 26). Street/open space was recorded for 80 percent of robberies among male students from the United States, 76 percent for male students from Malaysia, 73 percent for male students from the People's Republic of China, 71 percent for male students from the Republic of Korea and 51 percent for male Indian students.
  • The second most frequently recorded location for robberies against male Indian students in New South Wales was in the commercial retail sector (31%). This was disproportionately higher than for male students from the People's Republic of China (10%), Malaysia (10%), the Republic of Korea (5%) and the United States (0%). Overall, commercial locations (including retail, hospitality and financial services) comprised more than one-third of all robberies recorded for Indian male students in New South Wales (34%).
  • Residential robberies were relatively infrequent across all countries, representing just five percent of robberies among Chinese male students and four percent of Indian students.
  • Nearly one in 10 robberies recorded for male students from India occurred on or near public transport facilities—including taxis and taxi ranks (9%). This was higher than recorded for male students from any of the remaining four countries.

The number of recorded robberies against females in New South Wales is relatively small and so comparative analysis is limited. However, it is worthwhile noting that unlike for males, female students from India and the People's Republic of China experienced a similar proportion of commercial robberies (19% and 16%, respectively).

Finally, using an additional data extraction provided by NSW Police for all robberies between 2005 and 2009, it was possible to compare the location of robberies involving international students, with those from across the entire state (weighted for age and gender). This comparison confirmed that proportionally, male Indian student victims of robbery were more likely to be have experienced robbery at a commercial/retail location (31% vs 12%) and less likely to have been robbed on the street or in open spaces (51% vs 60%).

Table 26: Location of recorded robberies by gender and country, New South Wales, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesNSW average (weighted)
n%n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 500 51 295 73 44 71 16 76 8 80 16,826 60
Residential 38 4 21 5 1 2 0 1 10 1,519 5
Commercial—Retail 307 31 39 10 3 5 2 10 0 3,418 12
Commercial—Hospitality/entertainment 22 2 6 1 3 5 1 5 0 1,810 6
Commercial—Financial services 0 2 1 2 0 0 83 0
Commercial—Other 5 1 1 0 0 0 348 1
Public transport 88 9 23 6 4 6 1 5 0 2,862 10
Educational 2 6 1 0 1 5 0 121 0
Other 24 2 9 2 6 10 0 1 10 1,213 4
Total 986 402 62 21 10 28,200
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesNSW average (weighted)
n%n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 29 62 143 75 27 77 6 75 9 90 4,452 50
Residential 2 4 11 6 2 6 2 25 0 585 7
Commercial—Retail 6 13 23 12 1 3 0 0 1,475 17
Commercial—Hospitality/ entertainment 3 6 5 3 2 6 0 0 937 11
Commercial—Financial services 0 1 1 0 0 0 137 2
Commercial—Other 0 0 0 0 0 131 1
Public transport 4 9 3 2 1 3 0 0 624 7
Educational 0 1 1 2 6 0 0 54 1
Other 3 6 4 2 0 0 1 10 438 5
Total 47 191 35 8 10 8,833

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Temporal pattern of robbery

The majority of robberies in New South Wales against male international students occurred between the hours of 8 pm and 4 am, although some differences were identified between the five countries (see Table 27). Those most likely to be robbed during these hours were male students from the United States (90%), followed by students from Malaysia (76%), India (73%), and the People's Republic of China (69%). Of those robberies that were recorded between 8 pm and 8 am, the majority occurred before midnight for all male students except those from the United States. Instead, American students were more likely to be robbed between midnight and 4 am than at any other time of the day.

Table 27: Time of day of robberies by gender and country, New South Wales, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 264 27 87 22 16 26 5 24 7 70
4 am–8 am 72 7 21 5 5 8 0 1 10
8 am–noon 35 4 12 3 5 8 0 0
Noon–4 pm 47 5 35 9 1 2 1 5 0
4 pm–8 pm 111 11 59 15 7 11 4 19 0
8 pm–midnight 457 46 188 47 28 45 11 52 2 20
Total 986 402 62 21 10
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 7 15 15 8 5 14 0 9 90
4 am–8 am 3 6 8 4 2 6 0 0
8 am–noon 3 6 4 2 4 11 1 13 0
Noon–4 pm 3 6 17 9 1 3 1 13 0
4 pm–8 pm 10 21 51 27 9 26 3 38 1 10
8 pm–midnight 21 45 96 50 14 40 3 38 0
Total 47 191 35 8 10

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Daytime robberies (between 8 am and 4 pm) were relatively rare among male students, but less so among students from Malaysia (5%) and the United States (0%), compared with students from the People's Republic of China (12%) and the Republic of Korea (10%) and India (9%).

As with males, robberies experienced by female international students in New South Wales were most often recorded as having occurred during evening (between 8 pm to 4 am)—this was the case for 60 percent of robberies against female Indian students, 58 percent of Chinese students and 54 percent of Korean students. The number of robberies experienced by female students from Malaysia and the United States limits meaningful comparative analysis.

Analysis by the day of the week on which robberies were recorded showed no remarkable findings between countries or by gender (see Table 28). For Indian male students the distribution of robberies across the week was roughly equal, ranging from between 12 and 17 percent on each day. A similar pattern was evident for robberies against Chinese, Korean and Malaysian male students.

Table 28: Day of week of robberies by gender and country, New South Wales, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 170 17 66 16 2 3 0 2 20
Monday 147 15 54 13 12 19 4 19 0
Tuesday 144 15 55 13 11 18 4 19 0
Wednesday 116 12 56 14 11 18 3 14 2 20
Thursday 114 12 50 12 5 8 2 10 1 10
Friday 142 14 62 15 10 16 3 14 2 20
Saturday 153 16 70 17 11 18 5 24 3 30
Total 986 413 62 21 10
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 9 19 33 17 8 23 3 38 3 30
Monday 8 17 25 13 4 11 2 25 0
Tuesday 7 15 33 17 6 17 1 13 1 10
Wednesday 2 4 16 8 3 9 0 1 10
Thursday 9 19 21 11 4 11 0 2 20
Friday 4 9 21 11 5 14 1 13 1 10
Saturday 8 17 42 22 5 14 1 13 2 20
Total 47 191 35 8 10

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Experience of other theft

Rate of other theft victimisation

The ABS was unable to provide age and gender breakdowns for other theft data from Recorded Crime Victims. As a result, the state averages presented for the category of other theft are provided to give some context against which the student rates of other theft may be considered; however, the two are not directly comparable and it is important to exercise caution when interpreting the results.

Between 2005 and 2009, the rate of other theft for all persons across New South Wales ranged from between 20 and 23 incidents per 1,000 of the population (see Table 29). The lowest rate was recorded in 2009; the highest rate was recorded in 2005.

Males

For male international students, the estimated other theft rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • seventeen and 24 incidents for male students from India;
  • nine and 13 incidents for male students from the People's Republic of China;
  • five and 32 incidents for male students from the Republic of Korea;
  • two and 17 incidents for male students from Malaysia; and
  • ten and 34 incidents for male students from the United States.

With the exception of the People's Republic of China, the rate of other theft has generally declined over the 2005–09 period. For male students from India, the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Korea in particular, the lowest rate of other theft was recorded for 2009, the lowest rate since the beginning of the series in 2005.

Examination of the relevant confidence intervals for each annual estimate reveals the following key conclusion:

  • The rate of other theft experienced by Indian male students was statistically higher in all years compared with males from all other countries, except the United States.

Females

For female international students, the estimated other theft rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population was between:

  • eight and 31 incidents for female students from India;
  • nine and 16 incidents for female students from the People's Republic of China;
  • six and 25 incidents for female students from the Republic of Korea;
  • eight and 22 incidents for female students from Malaysia; and
  • thirteen and 30 incidents for female students from the United States.

The number of other theft offences recorded for females across the student groups is too small for further analysis.

Table 29: Rate of theft by gender and country, New South Wales, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesNSW population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 54 20.1 44 8.8 20 32.4 8 17.0^ 3 33.6^^ 23.3
(15.3–26.0) (6.3–11.9) (21.5–46.8) (6.8–35.0) (9.2–86.1) (23.2–23.4)
2006 148 24.3 116 10.6 36 13.9 8 10.1^ 16 13.2^ 23.0
(20.7–28.4) (8.8–12.7) (9.7–19.3) (4.8–18.5) (7.4–21.8) (22.9–23.1)
2007 186 19.9 179 13.1 42 14.0 16 14.8^ 22 18.0^ 21.9
(17.1–22.9) (11.3–15.1) (10.2–18.6) (8.8–23.4) (11.4–26.9) (21.8–22.0)
2008 251 19.1 167 10.4 44 9.6 4 2.2^^ 13 10.3^ 20.7
(16.7–21.6) (9.0–12.0) (6.6–13.4) (0.5–6.6) (5.6–17.2) (20.6–20.8)
2009 249 17.4 169 8.8 28 5.3^ 16 9.5^ 15 12.0^ 20.5
(15.3–19.7) (7.6–10.2) (3.1–8.4) (5.2–16.0) (6.9–19.6) (20.4–20.6)
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesNSW population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 14 30.8^ 77 15.7 23 25.1 10 21.7^ 4 29.5^^ 23.3
(17.2–50.7) (12.5–19.4) (16.4–36.7) (9.9–41.1) (8.0–75.4) (23.2–23.4)
2006 22 15.3 137 11.1 50 16.1 18 18.3^ 28 15.5 23.0
(9.5–23.4) (9.3–13.1) (11.9–21.2) (10.8–28.9) (10.1–22.8) (22.9–23.1)
2007 39 18.7 217 14.0 71 17.4 17 13.0^ 44 21.9 21.9
(13.5–25.1) (12.2–15.9) (13.5–22.1) (7.4–21.1) (15.8–29.8) (21.8–22.0)
2008 53 19.0 200 10.5 35 11.0 11 7.6^ 36 19.8 20.7
(14.5–24.4) (9.1–12.1) (8.1–14.8) (3.8–13.6) (14.1–27.1) (20.6–20.8)
2009 42 7.8 187 8.9 24 6.3 14 8.7^ 20 12.6 20.5
(5.5–10.6) (7.7–10.2) (4.1–9.4) (4.8–14.6) (7.9–19.1) (20.4–20.6)

^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 25% should be interpreted with caution

^^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 50% should be interpreted with extreme caution

(n–n) The numbers in parentheses beneath the point estimates (rates) indicate the lower and upper band confidence intervals

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]