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Victoria

The Victorian student sample

Between 2005 and 2009 inclusive, 133,574 international students from the five source countries were identified as having commenced study at an institution or course located in Victoria (see Table 30). This included students who commenced study prior to 2005, but were known to be continuing their studies in Victoria in 2005. Overall, Victoria accounted for 34 percent of all international students studying in Australia between 2005 and 2009.

The vast majority of students studying in Victoria were from India (n=59,316; 44%), followed by the People's Republic of China (n=50,492; 38%), Malaysia (n=13,487; 11%), the United States (n=5,352; 4%), and Korea (n=4,927; 4%).

Over the five year period, the number of international students studying in Victoria remained relatively stable, increasing in every year except 2009, when the number of students declined by a total of 1,841 students (down 4% on the previous year). This overall decline in students in 2009 was largely driven by a significant reduction in the number of students from India; down 17 percent on the previous year.

Table 30: Annual student arrivals by gender and country, Victoria, 2005–09 (n)
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTotal
2005 5,456 5,022 541 1,754 119 12,892
2006 8,494 4,682 735 1,425 570 15,906
2007 11,014 4,103 499 1,044 518 17,178
2008 10,867 4,881 376 1,139 506 17,769
2009 8,556 5,321 285 1,285 494 15,941
Total 44,387 24,009 2,436 6,647 2,207 79,686
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTotal
2005 945 5,522 536 1,772 129 8,904
2006 1,566 5,025 831 1,538 823 9,783
2007 3,136 4,590 497 1,100 743 10,066
2008 4,789 5,514 358 1,159 754 12,574
2009 4,493 5,832 269 1,271 696 12,561
Total 14,929 26,483 2,491 6,840 3,145 53,888
All students
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTotal
2005 6,401 10,544 1,077 3,526 248 21,796
2006 10,060 9,707 1,566 2,963 1,393 25,689
2007 14,150 8,693 996 2,144 1,261 27,244
2008 15,656 10,395 734 2,298 1,260 30,343
2009 13,049 11,153 554 2,556 1,190 28,502
Total 59,316 50,492 4,927 13,487 5,352 133,574

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Estimating the 'at-risk' student population

For the reasons described in the methodology, the calculation of victimisation rates required a reliable estimate of the 'at-risk' population in each year and for each of the five international student source countries; in this case, a summary estimate of the number of students who studied within Victoria for the entire 365 days in each year. It was calculated as the sum of the number of days all students were 'at risk' within the relevant year, divided by 365. These estimates were notionally larger than those presented above because students were not only counted in the year in which they arrive, but also counted in any subsequent years of study.

Overall, the distribution of 'at-risk' students is roughly equal with the distribution among student arrivals for all countries (see Figure 16). The United States, although having the equal fourth largest number of arrivals overall, nevertheless had the lowest 'at-risk' population across the five year period. One probable explanation is that students from the United States study in Australia for shorter periods of time and therefore have less 'at-risk' time over multiple years.

Figure 16: Annual student arrivals and estimated annual at-risk population by country of birth, Victoria (%)

Figure 16: Annual student arrivals and estimated annual at-risk population by country of birth, Victoria (%)

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

It is important to note that despite a decline in student arrivals in 2009, the number of 'at-risk' students remained, on average, higher than any other previous year. This is because the 'at-risk' population represents both new and continuing students (not just new arrivals) and therefore, the impact of any decline in arrival numbers would not be observed until after existing students complete their studies and leave Australia or transfer to alternative visas.

Finally, the last column presented in Table 31 provides comparative population estimates for the annualised Victorian population aged between 15 and 44 years. These estimates are derived from the ABS population census projections and are used as the basis on which statewide victimisation rates are calculated (with the exception of the other theft category).

Table 31: Estimated annual at-risk population by gender and country, Victoria, 2005–09 (n)
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesVictorian population
Total at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year persons
2005 1,195,110 3,274 1,182,997 3,241 117,904 323 456,346 1,250 21,312 58 n/a 1,084,088
2006 3,509,239 9,614 2,823,452 7,735 364,724 999 1,011,945 2,772 152,623 418 n/a 1,090,325
2007 6,303,306 17,269 3,643,515 9,982 478,076 1,310 1,157,742 3,172 172,108 472 n/a 1,095,088
2008 8,553,456 23,434 4,531,160 12,414 545,169 1,494 1,258,170 3,447 180,639 495 n/a 1,099,839
2009 9,888,886 27,093 5,426,081 14,866 533,605 1,462 1,364,629 3,739 164,714 451 n/a 1,105,679
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesVictorian population
Total at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year persons
2005 200,524 549 1,286,215 3,524 114,892 315 464,969 1,274 23,918 66 n/a 1,082,758
2006 611,919 1,676 3,065,764 8,399 385,259 1,056 1,039,765 2,849 214,163 587 n/a 1,086,732
2007 1,336,066 3,660 3,899,780 10,684 491,006 1,345 1,197,533 3,281 230,551 632 n/a 1,089,722
2008 2,372,344 6,500 4,873,708 13,353 525,554 1,440 1,295,224 3,549 232,357 637 n/a 1,092,812
2009 3,691,469 10,114 5,884,423 16,122 487,202 1,335 1,365,476 3,741 226,448 620 n/a 1,096,100
All students
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesVictorian population
Total at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year persons
2005 1,395,634 3,824 2,469,212 6,765 232,796 638 921,315 2,524 45,230 124 n/a 2,166,846
2006 4,121,158 11,291 5,889,216 16,135 749,983 2,055 2,051,710 5,621 366,786 1,005 n/a 2,177,057
2007 7,639,372 20,930 7,543,295 20,667 969,082 2,655 2,355,275 6,453 402,659 1,103 n/a 2,184,810
2008 10,925,800 29,934 9,404,868 25,767 1,070,723 2,933 2,553,394 6,996 412,996 1,131 n/a 2,192,651
2009 13,580,355 37,206 11,310,504 30,988 1,020,807 2,797 2,730,105 7,480 391,162 1,072 n/a 2,201,779

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

The international student groups arriving to study in Victoria were not homogenous, varying significantly by both gender and age. In terms of gender, almost 60 percent of all students arriving in Victoria were male; however, male arrivals from India substantially outnumbered female arrivals over the five year period (75% cf 25%). Conversely, female students typically outnumbered males arriving from the United States (59% cf 41%) and the People's Republic of China (52% cf 43%). The gender differential was roughly equal for students arriving from the Republic of Korea (51% female cf 49% male) and Malaysia (51% female cf 49% male).

These patterns were also generally consistent for the calculated annual 'at-risk' populations, where in 2009 for example, male students from India comprised 73 percent of the total Indian 'at-risk' population and female students from the People's Republic of China comprised (52%) of the Chinese 'at-risk' population. For Malaysia and the United States in 2009, there were more 'at-risk' female students than male students.

In terms of age, the vast majority of all students were aged between 20 and 35 years. In 2009, this age group comprised 92 percent of 'at-risk' students from India, 76 percent of students from the People's Republic of China, 75 percent from both Malaysia and the United States, and 74 percent from the Republic of Korea. Younger students (those aged between 15 and 19 years) were disproportionally over-represented among those from the People's Republic of China (24%), Malaysia (23%) and the Republic of Korea (19%) when compared with the United States (12%) and India (7%).

Even more telling was the joint age and gender distribution for each country in 2009, with as many as 43 percent of all 'at-risk' students from India and 33 percent of students from Malaysia being males aged between 20 and 24 years (see Table 32). By contrast, the single age/gender combination with the highest proportional population of 'at-risk' students from the United States (39%) and the People's Republic of China (31%) was females aged 25–34 years. Males aged between 25 and 34 were most 'at risk' among students from the Republic of Korea (25%).

Finally, it is important to note the comparative differences in age and gender for each international student group when compared with the Victorian population. Specifically, half of the Victorian population aged between 15 and 44 years was male. Just over two-thirds of the population (combined and separate for male and female populations) were aged over 25 years; one-third aged over 35 years. Only 16 percent of the 15 to 44 year old population in Victoria was aged between 20 and 24 years—substantially lower than students from India (55%), the People's Republic of China (60%), Malaysia (63%) and the United States (65%).

Table 32: Age distribution of the annual at-risk population by gender and country, Victoria, 2009a
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesVictorian population
Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%
15–19 yrs 2,096 8 3,703 25 287 21 803 22 42 10 176,092 16
20–24 yrs 15,967 59 8,687 59 361 27 2,419 65 281 63 179,772 16
25–34 yrs 8,772 32 2,393 16 639 47 420 11 104 24 369,683 33
35–44 yrs 249 1 64 0 73 5 72 2 16 4 380,132 34
Total 27,084 14,847 1,360 3,714 443 1,105,679
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesVictorian population
Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%
15–19 yrs 530 5 3,661 23 220 18 881 24 79 13 167,714 15
20–24 yrs 4,483 44 9,869 61 444 36 2,236 60 409 67 172,163 16
25–34 yrs 4,808 48 2,451 15 490 40 483 13 110 18 364,660 33
35–44 yrs 277 3 124 1 87 7 123 3 13 2 391,563 36
Total 10,098 16,105 1,241 3,724 611 1,096,100
All students
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesVictorian population
Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%
15–19 yrs 2,626 7 7,364 24 506 19 1,684 23 122 12 343,806 16
20–24 yrs 20,449 55 18,556 60 805 31 4,655 63 690 65 351,935 16
25–34 yrs 13,580 37 4,844 16 1,129 43 903 12 214 20 734,343 33
35–44 yrs 526 1 188 1 160 6 195 3 29 3 771,695 35
Total 37,181 30,952 2,600 7,437 1,055 2,201,779

a: Totals may include students aged outside of the specified age ranges and therefore may not sum

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Experience of assault

Rate of assault victimisation

Comparison of assault data presented in this chapter with that of any other jurisdiction is not advised. Assault data is not collected or recorded consistently between the jurisdictions, thus significantly limiting the reliability of cross-jurisdictional comparisons. It is for this reason that national comparisons are not provided in this report.

Males

Between 2005 and 2009, the estimated (weighted) rate of assault for males across Victoria ranged from between nine and 14 incidents per 1,000 of the population (see Table 33). The highest rate of assault occurred in 2009; the lowest rate occurred in 2007.

For male international students, the estimated assault rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • eight and 11 incidents for male students from India;
  • one and two incidents for male students from the People's Republic of China;
  • zero and two incidents for male students from the Republic of Korea;
  • 0.5 and two incidents for male students from Malaysia; and
  • four and six incidents for male students from the United States.

Examination of the relevant confidence intervals for each annual estimate reveals the following key conclusions:

  • In nearly all cases, the rate of assault among all international students groups was lower than the average for similarly aged males across Victoria. Exceptions were found for male students from India for whom the rate of assault was higher than, and equal to, that for Victorian males in 2006 and 2007.
  • The rate of assault among male Indian students was significantly higher in all years compared with students from all other countries.

Females

Females across Victoria experienced an estimated (weighted) rate of assault of between six and 10 incidents per 1,000 of the population. The lowest rate was recorded in 2005; the highest in 2009. Between 2008 and 2009, the estimated rate of assault increased from seven to 10 incidents per 1,000.

For female international students, the estimated assault rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • one and seven incidents for female students from India;
  • 0.3 and one incident for female students from the People's Republic of China;
  • 0.7 and two incidents for female students from the Republic of Korea;
  • 0.4 and one incident for female students from Malaysia; and
  • two and five incidents for female students from the United States.

As was the case for male students, examination of the confidence intervals illustrated that in nearly all cases, the rate of assault victimisation among international students was lower than the average for similarly aged females across Victoria. The exception was for females from India in 2005.

Further, the confidence intervals indicated little statistical difference between the five source countries, the exception being in the more recent years (2008 and 2009) where the rate of assault among female Indian students was statistically higher than students from the People's Republic of China.

Table 33: Rate of assault by gender and country, Victoria, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesVictorian population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 28 7.6 3 0.9^^ 0 0 0 8.7
(4.9–11.3) (0.2–2.7) (8.5–8.8)
2006 112 10.8 14 1.9^ 2 2.2^^ 3 1.1^^ 2 4.9^^ 8.8
(8.8–13.1) (1.1–3.2) (0.3–7.9) (0.2–3.2) (0.6–17.6) (8.6–9.0)
2007 196 10.0 15 1.6^ 0 2 0.6^^ 2 4.3^^ 10.1
(8.5–11.6) (0.9–2.6) (0.1–2.3) (0.5–15.6) (10.0–10.3)
2008 239 8.9 14 1.3^ 0 5 1.8^^ 3 6.2^^ 9.6
(7.7–10.2) (0.7–2.1) (0.6–3.8) (1.3–18.0) (9.5–9.8)
2009 273 8.9 24 1.8 1 0.0^^ 1 0.5^^ 3 4.5^^ 13.9
(7.8–10.1) (1.1–2.6) (0.0–2.7) (0.1–1.9) (0.5–16.3) (13.7–14.2)
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesVictorian population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 3 7.3^^ 1 0.3^^ 0 1 0.8^^ 0 6.1
(2.0–18.7) (0.0–1.6) (0.0–4.4) (6.0–6.3)
2006 2 1.2^^ 2 0.4^^ 1 1.0^^ 1 0.4^^ 2 5.2^^ 6.5
(0.1–4.3) (0.1–1.0) (0.0–5.6) (0.0–2.0) (1.1–15.1) (6.4–6.7)
2007 5 1.4^ 13 1.4^ 0 0 0 7.3
(0.4–3.2) (0.8–2.3) (7.1–7.4)
2008 11 2.9^ 10 0.7^ 2 0.7^^ 1 0.6^^ 1 1.6^^ 7.0
(1.8–4.6) (0.4–1.4) (0.0–4.1) (0.1–2.1) (0.0–8.8) (6.9–7.2)
2009 25 3.4 5 0.3^ 3 1.6^^ 0 0 9.8
(2.3–4.7) (0.1–0.7) (0.2–5.8) (9.6–10.0)

^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 25% should be interpreted with caution

^^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 50% should be interpreted with extreme caution

(n–n) The numbers in parentheses beneath the point estimates (rates) indicate the lower and upper band confidence intervals

Note: Comparison of this data with that of any other jurisdiction is not advised. Assault data is not collected or recorded consistently between the jurisdictions, thus significantly limiting the reliability of cross-jurisdictional comparisons. It is for this reason that national comparisons are not provided in this report

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Location of assault

Comparative analysis of assault against male students from each of the five source countries revealed a number of interesting findings.

  • For all male students, the location most frequently recorded for assaults was street/open space, although the frequency varied by country (see Table 34). Street/open space was recorded for 73 percent of assaults among male students from Malaysia, 70 percent for male students from the United States, 67 percent for male students from the Republic of Korea, 46 percent for male Indian students and 43 percent for male students from the People's Republic of China.
  • The second most frequently recorded location for assaults was in or near public transport. Public transport was recorded for 15 percent of assaults among male Indian students, seven percent for male students from the People's Republic of China and 10 percent for male students from the United States.
  • The commercial retail sector was the third most common location of assaults against students with 15 percent of male students from India, 16 percent from the People's Republic of China and nine percent from Malaysia. Overall, commercial locations (including retail, hospitality and financial services) comprised nearly one-third of all assaults recorded for Indian male students in Victoria (28%).

The number of recorded assaults against females in Victoria is relatively small and so comparative analysis is limited. However, the findings indicate a number of key points:

  • Students from India, the Republic of Korea and the People's Republic of China were most likely to experience assault at a residential location (61%, 50% and 46%, respectively).
  • Assaults against students from Malaysia and the United States were more often recorded as having occurred on the street or in open spaces (67% and 33% respectively).
Table 34: Location of recorded assaults by gender and country, Victoria, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 362 46 30 43 2 67 8 73 7 70
Residential 71 9 18 26 1 33 0 0
Commercial—Retail 111 15 11 16 0 1 9 0
Commercial—Hospitality/ entertainment 92 12 4 6 0 2 18 2 20
Commercial—Financial services 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Other 6 1 0 0 0 0
Public transport 120 15 5 7 0 0 1 10
Educational 7 1 1 1 0 0 0
Other 13 2 1 1 0 0 0
Total 782 70 3 11 10
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 9 20 10 36 2 33 2 67 1 33
Residential 28 61 13 46 3 50 1 33 0
Commercial—Retail 2 4 1 4 0 0 0
Commercial—Hospitality/ entertainment 1 2 1 4 1 17 0 1 33
Commercial—Financial services 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Other 0 0 0 0 1 33
Public transport 5 11 0 0 0 0
Educational 0 2 7 0 0 0
Other 1 2 1 4 0 0 0 _
Total 46 28 6 3 3

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Temporal pattern of assault

The majority of assaults against male international students occurred between the hours of 8 pm and 4 am, although some differences were identified between the five countries (see Table 35). Those most likely to be assaulted during these hours were male students from the Republic of Korea (100%), followed by students from the United States (90%), India (66%), the People's Republic of China (56%), and Malaysia (54%).

Table 35: Time of day of assaults by gender and country, Victoria, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 287 37 14 20 1 33 4 36 5 50
4 am–8 am 76 10 6 9 0 2 18 0
8 am–noon 21 3 6 9 0 0 0
Noon–4 pm 51 7 11 16 0 3 27 0
4 pm–8 pm 116 15 8 11 0 0 1 10
8 pm–midnight 230 29 25 36 2 67 2 18 4 40
Total 781 70 3 11 10
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 8 17 3 11 2 33 0 0
4 am–8 am 2 4 1 4 0 1 50 1 33
8 am–noon 6 13 8 29 1 17 0 1 33
Noon–4 pm 6 13 7 25 1 17 0 0
4 pm–8 pm 12 26 4 14 1 17 1 50 1 33
8 pm–midnight 12 26 5 18 1 17 0 0
Total 46 28 6 2 3

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Daytime assaults (between 8 am and 4 pm) were relatively infrequent among all male student groups, with 27 percent recorded among male students from Malaysia, 25 percent recorded among male students from the People's Republic of China and 10 percent among Indian males. No daylight assaults were recorded among male students from the Republic of Korea and the United States.

Assaults against female international students in Victoria were more often recorded as having occurred during the day time and early evening (between 8 am to 8 pm)—this was the case for 68 percent of Chinese students, 66 percent of US students, 52 percent of assaults against female Indian students, 51 percent of Korean students and 50 percent of Malaysian students.

Analysis by day of the week on which assaults were recorded showed no remarkable findings (see Table 36). The weekend period (Friday, Saturday and Sunday) typically accounted for the majority of assaults against male students from the Republic of Korea (100%), the United States (90%), Malaysia (72%), India (60%) and the People's Republic of China (60%). Assaults against females occurred throughout the week and were lowest on Fridays. A higher proportion of assaults against female students from the United States and Malaysia occurred over the weekend period (66% each), than compared with the Republic of Korea, India and the People's Republic of China (50%, 36% and 29% respectively). These findings are consistent with a recent investigation of assaults in the Melbourne Central Business District (Drugs and Crime Prevention Committee 2010).

Table 36: Day of week of assaults by gender and country, Victoria, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 189 24 18 26 2 67 3 27 2 20
Monday 103 13 6 9 0 2 18 0
Tuesday 71 9 8 11 0 0 1 10
Wednesday 58 7 6 9 0 0 0
Thursday 74 9 8 11 0 1 9 0
Friday 111 14 8 11 1 33 4 36 3 30
Saturday 175 22 16 23 0 1 9 4 40
Total 781 70 3 11 10
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 3 7 3 11 2 33 1 33 0
Monday 8 17 3 11 0 1 33 0
Tuesday 3 7 8 29 2 33 0 1 33
Wednesday 7 15 5 18 1 17 0 0
Thursday 12 26 4 14 0 0 0
Friday 3 7 3 11 1 17 0 0
Saturday 10 22 2 7 0 1 33 2 66
Total 46 28 6 3 3

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Experience of robbery

Rate of robbery victimisation

Males

Between 2005 and 2009, the estimated (weighted) rate of robbery for males across Victoria ranged from between two and three incidents per 1,000 of the population (see Table 37).

For male international students, the estimated assault rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • eight and 12 incidents for male students from India;
  • one and three incidents for male students from the People's Republic of China;
  • zero and three incidents for male students from the Republic of Korea;
  • 0.3 and two incidents for male students from Malaysia; and
  • two and four incidents for male students from the United States.
Table 37: Rate of robbery by gender and country, Victoria, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesVictorian population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 30 9.5 5 1.9^ 1 0.0^^ 0 0 1.9
(6.4–13.4) (0.7–4.0) (0.0–13.3) (1.8–1.9)
2006 118 12.5 17 2.2 1 1.1^^ 0 1 2.4^^ 2.2
(10.4–14.9) (1.3–3.5) (0.0–6.1) (0.1–13.6) (2.1–2.3)
2007 190 11.3 9 0.8^ 1 0.0^^ 1 0.3^^ 2 4.3^^ 2.9
(9.8–13.0) (0.3–1.6) (0.0–3.0) (0.0–1.8) (0.5–15.6) (2.8–3.0)
2008 199 8.7 34 2.7 4 2.9^^ 8 2.0^ 0 3.0
(7.6–10.0) (1.8–3.7) (0.8–7.3) (0.8–4.2) (2.9–3.1)
2009 208 7.7 22 1.4 3 0.7^^ 5 1.3^ 0 2.8
(6.7–8.8) (0.9–2.2) (0.0–4.1) (0.4–3.1) (2.7–2.9)
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesVictorian population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 0 3 0.0^^ 0 0 0 0.6
(0.0–1.0) (0.5–0.6)
2006 6 3.0^ 8 0.4^ 0 0 0 0.6
(1.0–7.0) (0.1–1.0) (0.5–0.6)
2007 5 1.1^ 11 0.7^ 2 0.0^ 1 0.3^^ 0 0.6
(0.3–2.8) (0.3–1.5) (0.0–2.9) (0.0–1.7) (0.6–0.7)
2008 15 2.0^ 11 0.7^ 2 2.2^ 1 0.6^^ 2 3.2^^ 0.6
(1.1–3.4) (0.3–1.3) (0.5–6.5) (0.1–2.1) (0.4–11.5) (0.6–0.7)
2009 10 0.9^ 11 0.4^ 0 2 0.8^^ 0 0.5
(0.4–1.7) (0.1–0.8) (0.2–2.4) (0.4–0.5)

^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 25% should be interpreted with caution

^^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 50% should be interpreted with extreme caution

(n–n) The numbers in parentheses beneath the point estimates (rates) indicate the lower and upper band confidence intervals

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

The rate of robbery has generally declined over the 2005–09 period. In 2009, male students from India, had the lowest recorded rate of robbery since the beginning of this data series in 2005.

Examination of the relevant confidence intervals for each annual estimate reveals the following key conclusions:

  • The rate of robbery experienced by Indian male students was statistically higher in all years compared with males from the Victoria population average and was statistically higher in all years compared with males from the People's Republic of China, Malaysia and the Republic of Korea (with the exception of 2005).
  • While the rate of robbery experienced by male students from the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and the United States was generally lower than the Victorian average, it was only statistically significant for Chinese students in 2009.

Females

Females across Victoria experienced an estimated (weighted) rate of robbery of 0.6 incidents per 1,000 of the population. This was consistent over the five years between 2005 and 2008, prior to declining to 0.5 incidents per 1,000 population in 2009. For female international students, the estimated assault rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population was between:

  • one and three incidents for female students from India;
  • zero and one incident for female students from the People's Republic of China;
  • zero and two incidents for female students from the Republic of Korea;
  • 0.3 and one incident for female students from Malaysia; and
  • three incidents for female students from the United States in 2008.

There were only two instances where the rate of robbery among female international students was significantly higher than the Victoria population average; Indian females in 2006 and 2008.

Location of robbery

Analysis of weighted robbery data revealed that the most common location for robberies of males and females across Victoria was on the street or in open spaces (70% and 61%, respectively), followed by commercial (retail) locations (11% and 16%, respectively) and public transport (11% and 9%, respectively; see Table 38). These findings generally reflected the pattern which emerged among male and female international students who had been a victim of robbery in Victoria.

Comparative analysis of robberies recorded against male students from each of the five source countries reveals a number of interesting findings.

  • For all male students, the location most frequently recorded for robbery was 'street/open space' (63%), although the frequency varied by country. Street/open space was recorded for 100 percent of robberies among male students from the United States, 86 percent for male students from Malaysia, 80 percent for male students from the Republic of Korea, 65 percent for male students from the People's Republic of China and 62 percent of robberies among male Indian students.
  • The second most frequently recorded location for robberies against male Indian and Chinese students in Victoria was in the commercial retail sector (18% and 17%, respectively). No robberies against males from the remaining countries were recorded at this location.
  • Residential robberies were relatively infrequent across all countries, representing just five percent of robberies among Chinese male students and two percent of Indian students.
  • Nearly one in six robberies recorded for male students from India occurred on or near public transport facilities—including taxis and taxi ranks (15%). This was higher than recorded for male students from any of the remaining four countries.

The number of recorded robberies against females in Victoria is relatively small and so comparative analysis is limited. However, it is worthwhile noting that female students from India were more likely than Indian males to experience robberies on the street or in open spaces (78% vs 62%) and female students from the People's Republic of China more likely to experience robberies in or near public transport than Chinese males (17% vs 7%).

Finally, using an additional data extraction provided by Victoria police for a random sample of robberies recorded in Victoria between 2005 and 2009, it was possible to compare the location of robberies involving international students, compared with those from across the entire state (weighted for age and gender). This comparison confirms that proportionally, male Indian student victims of robbery were more likely to be have experienced robbery at a commercial/retail location (18% vs 11%) and at or near public transport facilities (15% vs 11%), and were less likely to have been robbed on the street or in open spaces (62% vs 70%).

Table 38: Location of recorded robberies by gender and country, Victoria 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesVictorian average (weighted)
n%n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 438 62 55 65 8 80 12 86 3 100 6,590 70
Residential 11 2 4 5 1 10 0 0 337 4
Commercial— Retail 124 18 18 17 0 0 0 1,049 11
Commercial—Hospitality/ entertainment 5 1 0 0 0 0 224 2
Commercial—Financial services 0 0 0 0 0 10 0
Commercial—Other 4 1 1 1 0 0 0 53 1
Public transport 108 15 6 7 1 10 2 14 0 1,058 11
Educational 6 1 0 0 0 0 47 0
Other 13 2 0 0 0 0 97 1
Total 709 84 10 14 3 9,465
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesVictorian average (weighted)
n%n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 28 78 26 62 4 100 3 75 2 100 1,465 61
Residential 0 3 7 0 0 0 147 6
Commercial—Retail 4 11 4 10 0 1 25 0 394 16
Commercial—Hospitality/ entertainment 0 0 0 0 0 93 4
Commercial—Financial services 0 0 0 0 0 10 0
Commercial—Other 4 11 2 5 0 0 0 25 1
Public transport 0 7 17 0 0 0 228 9
Educational 0 0 0 0 0 20 1
Other 0 0 0 0 0 21 1
Total 36 42 4 4 2 2,403

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Temporal pattern of robbery

The majority of robberies in Victoria against all male international students occurred between the hours of 8 pm and 4 am (see Table 39). Those most likely to be robbed during these hours were male students from the People's Republic of China (83%), followed by students from India (74%), the United States (67%), Malaysia (64%) and the Republic of Korea (60%).

Of those robberies that were recorded between 8 pm and 8 am, the majority occurred before midnight for male students from India and the People's Republic of China. Students from Malaysia and the United States were more likely to be robbed between midnight and 4 am than at any other time of the day.

Table 39: Time of day of robberies by gender and country, Victoria, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 189 27 21 25 3 30 6 43 2 67
4 am–8 am 67 9 6 7 0 0 1 33
8 am–noon 19 3 1 1 1 10 1 7 0
Noon–4 pm 27 4 1 1 0 3 21 0
4 pm–8 pm 75 11 6 7 3 30 1 7 0
8 pm–midnight 332 47 49 58 3 30 3 21 0
Total 709 84 10 14 3
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 5 14 3 7 2 50 0 1 50
4 am–8 am 1 3 1 2 0 0 0
8 am–noon 2 6 3 7 0 0 0
Noon–4 pm 6 17 4 10 0 1 25 0
4 pm–8 pm 8 22 9 21 0 2 50 0
8 pm–midnight 14 39 22 52 2 50 1 25 1 50
Total 36 42 4 4 2

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Daytime robberies (between 8 am and 4 pm) were relatively rare among male students and more so among students from the People's Republic of China (2%) and the United States (0%), compared with students from Malaysia (28%), India (7%) and the Republic of Korea (10%; see Table 40).

Like males, robberies experienced by female international students in Victoria were most often recorded as having occurred during evening (between 8 pm to 4 am)—this was the case for 59 percent of Chinese students and 53 percent of robberies against female Indian students. The number of robberies experienced by female students from the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and the United States limits meaningful comparative analysis.

The weekend period (Friday, Saturday and Sunday) typically accounted for most robberies against male students from Malaysia (78%), the United States (67%), India (49%), the People's Republic of China (46%) and the Republic of Korea (30%).

A similar pattern emerged among female students with 52 percent of Chinese females and 42 percent of Indian females experiencing robbery on the weekend. The number of robberies experienced by female students from the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and the United States limits meaningful comparative analysis.

Table 40: Day of week of robberies by gender and country, Victoria, 2005–09
 
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 120 17 12 14 1 10 7 50 2 67
Monday 97 14 9 11 2 20 1 7 1 33
Tuesday 91 13 13 15 0 1 7 0
Wednesday 90 13 13 15 4 40 1 7 0
Thursday 83 12 10 12 1 10 0 0
Friday 95 13 12 14 0 1 7 0
Saturday 133 19 15 18 2 20 3 21 0
Total 709 84 10 14 3
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 4 11 9 21 1 25 1 25 1 50
Monday 5 14 7 17 0 0 0
Tuesday 5 14 2 5 0 0 0
Wednesday 2 6 4 10 1 25 0 0
Thursday 9 25 7 17 0 0 0
Friday 5 14 7 17 1 25 0 1 50
Saturday 6 17 6 14 1 25 3 75 0
Total 36 42 4 4 2

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Experience of other theft

Rate of other theft victimisation

The ABS was unable to provide age and gender breakdowns for other theft data from Recorded Crime Victims. As a result, the state averages presented for the category of other theft are provided to give some context against which the student rates of other theft may be considered; however, the two are not directly comparable and it is important to exercise caution when interpreting the results.

Between 2005 and 2009, the rate of other theft for all persons across Victoria ranged from between 22 and 24 incidents per 1,000 of the population (see Table 41).

Males

For male international students, the estimated other theft rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • eleven and 21 incidents for male students from India;
  • eight and 10 incidents for male students from the People's Republic of China;
  • seven and 18 incidents for male students from the Republic of Korea;
  • four and nine incidents for male students from Malaysia; and
  • two and 14 incidents for male students from the United States.

With the exception of Malaysia and the United States, the rate of other theft has generally declined over the 2005–09 period. For male students from India and the People's Republic of China in particular, 2009 recorded the lowest rate of other theft since the beginning of the series in 2005.

Examination of the relevant confidence intervals for each annual estimate reveals the following key conclusions:

  • The rate of other theft experienced by Indian male students was statistically higher in all years compared with males from the People's Republic of China, Malaysia, the Republic of Korea (except in 2005 and 2009) and the United States (except in 2006 and 2009).

Females

For female international students, the estimated other theft rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population was between:

  • five and 11 incidents for female students from India;
  • three and eight incidents for female students from the People's Republic of China;
  • six and 32 incidents for female students from the Republic of Korea;
  • four and 15 incidents for female students from Malaysia; and
  • eight and 17 incidents for female students from the United States.
Table 41: Rate of theft by gender and country, Victoria, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesVictorian population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 70 20.8 30 10.2 5 18.0^^ 5 4.1^^ 0 23.3
(16.1–26.3) (7.0–14.3) (5.9–42.1) (1.3–9.5) (23.2–23.4)
2006 184 18.7 67 9.2 6 6.5^^ 16 5.8^ 3 7.3^^ 22.8
(16.1–21.7) (7.2–11.6) (2.4–14.2) (3.3–9.5) (1.5–21.3) (22.6–22.9)
2007 308 17.6 84 9.5 7 8.1^^ 13 4.1^ 2 4.3^^ 22.0
(15.7–19.7) (7.7–11.6) (3.9–14.9) (2.2–7.1) (0.5–15.6) (21.8–22.1)
2008 381 16.1 117 10.2 13 10.0^ 24 8.5^ 1 2.1^^ 23.9
(14.5–17.8) (8.5–12.1) (5.5–16.8) (5.7–12.2) (0.1–11.4) (23.8–24.1)
2009 322 11.4 118 8.2 15 11.0^ 18 4.3^ 5 13.5^^ 22.0
(10.1–12.7) (6.8–9.8) (6.2–18.2) (2.5–7.0) (5.0–29.5) (21.9–22.1)
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesVictorian population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 5 10.9^ 11 3.1^ 8 31.5^ 13 15.1^ 0 23.3
(4.0–23.8) (1.6–5.6) (14.4–59.7) (9.1–23.5) (23.2–23.4)
2006 19 10.2 57 6.8 9 8.1^ 20 7.4 10 17.3^ 22.8
(5.9–16.3) (5.1–8.8) (3.5–15.9) (4.6–11.3) (8.3–31.7) (22.6–22.9)
2007 30 8.2 75 7.1 7 5.5^ 29 8.9 10 14.5^ 22.0
(5.5–11.7) (5.6–8.9) (2.2–11.3) (6.0–12.8) (6.6–27.5) (21.8–22.1)
2008 38 5.4 97 7.5 8 5.9^ 26 6.8 5 7.9^^ 23.9
(3.8–7.5) (6.1–9.1) (2.6–11.7) (4.4–10.1) (2.6–18.5) (23.8–24.1)
2009 63 8.0 111 6.6 7 6.4^ 16 4.0^ 7 13.1^ 22.0
(6.4–10.0) (5.4–8.0) (2.8–12.7) (2.3–6.6) (5.6–25.8) (21.9–22.1)

^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 25% should be interpreted with caution

^^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 50% should be interpreted with extreme caution

(n–n) The numbers in parentheses beneath the point estimates (rates) indicate the lower and upper band confidence intervals.

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]