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Queensland

The Queensland student sample

Between 2005 and 2009 inclusive, 55,290 international students from the five source countries were identified as having commenced study at an institution or course located in Queensland (see Table 42). This includes students who commenced study prior to 2005, but were known to be continuing their studies in Queensland in 2005. Overall, Queensland accounted for 14 percent of all international students studying in Australia between 2005 and 2009.

The vast majority of students studying in Queensland were from the People's Republic of China (n=17,319; 31%), followed by India (n=16,357; 30%), the United States (n=11,291; 20%), Korea (n=6,414; 12%) and Malaysia (n=3,909; 7%).

Over the five year period, the number of international students studying in Queensland remained relatively stable.

Table 42: Annual student arrivals by gender and country, Queensland, 2005–09 (n)
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTotal
2005 816 1,685 642 428 150 3,721
2006 932 1,489 861 383 1,116 4,781
2007 2,054 1,120 611 295 1,060 5,140
2008 4,159 1,469 481 317 1,014 7,440
2009 3,505 1,830 400 427 978 7,140
Total 11,466 7,593 2,995 1,850 4,318 28,222
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTotal
2005 184 1,994 669 435 71 3,353
2006 251 1,612 950 379 1,969 5,161
2007 581 1,482 755 386 1,704 4,908
2008 1,713 2,040 585 386 1,671 6,395
2009 2,162 2,598 460 473 1,558 7,251
Total 4,891 9,726 3,419 2,059 6,973 27,068
All students
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTotal
2005 1,000 3,679 1,311 863 221 7,074
2006 1,183 3,101 1,811 762 3,085 9,942
2007 2,635 2,602 1,366 681 2,764 10,048
2008 5,872 3,509 1,066 703 2,685 13,835
2009 5,667 4,428 860 900 2,536 14,391
Total 16,357 17,319 6,414 3,909 11,291 55,290

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Estimating the 'at-risk' student population

For the reasons described in the Methodology section, the calculation of victimisation rates required a reliable estimate of the 'at-risk' population in each year and for each of the five international student source countries; in this case, a summary estimate of the number of students who studied within Queensland for the entire 365 days in each year. It was calculated as the sum of the number days all students were 'at risk' within the relevant year, divided by 365. These estimates were notionally larger than those presented above because students were not only counted in the year in which they arrive, but also counted in any subsequent years of study.

Overall, the distribution of 'at-risk' students is roughly equal with the distribution among student arrivals for all countries (see Figure 17). The United States, although having the third largest number of arrivals overall, nevertheless had the lowest 'at-risk' population across the five year period. One probable explanation is that students from the United States study in Australia for shorter periods of time and therefore have less 'at-risk' time over multiple years.

Figure 17: Annual student arrivals and estimated annual at-risk population by country of birth, Queensland (%)

Figure 17: Annual student arrivals and estimated annual at-risk population by country of birth, Queensland (%)

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Finally, the last column presented in Table 43 provides comparative population estimates for the annualised Queensland population aged between 15 and 44 years. These estimates are derived from the ABS population census projections and are used as the basis on which statewide victimisation rates are calculated (with the exception of the other theft category).

The international student groups arriving to study in Queensland were not homogenous, varying significantly by both gender and age. In terms of gender, just over half of all students arriving in Queensland were male (51%); however, male arrivals from India substantially outnumbered female arrivals over the five year period (70% vs 30%). Conversely, female students typically outnumbered males arriving from the People's Republic of China (56% vs 44%), the Republic of Korea (47% vs 53%), Malaysia (47% vs 53%) and the United States (38% vs 62%).

These patterns were also generally consistent for the calculated annual 'at-risk' populations, where in 2009 for example, male students from India made up 70 percent of the total Indian 'at-risk' population and female students from the People's Republic of China comprised (44%) of the Chinese 'at-risk' population. For the other countries, there were more 'at-risk' female students than male students in 2009.

In terms of age, the vast majority of all students were aged between 20 and 35 years. In 2009, this age group comprised 91 percent of 'at-risk' students from India, 79 percent of students from the People's Republic of China, 73 percent from the Republic of Korea, 81 percent from Malaysia and 88 percent from the United States. Younger students (those aged between 15 and 19 years) were disproportionally over-represented among those from the People's Republic of China (20%), the Republic of Korea (20%) and Malaysia (20%), when compared with the United States (10%) and India (8%).

Even more telling is the joint age and gender distribution for each country in 2009, with as many as 42 percent of all 'at-risk' students from India being males aged between 20 and 24 years (see Table 44). Males aged between 25 and 34 were most 'at risk' among students from the Republic of Korea (22%). By contrast, the single age/gender combination with the highest proportional population of 'at-risk' students was, for all other countries, females aged 20–24 years.

Finally, it is important to note the comparative differences in age and gender for each international student group when compared with the Queensland population. Specifically, 50 percent of the Queensland population aged between 15 and 44 years was male. Two-thirds of the population (combined and separate for male and female populations) were aged over 25 years; one-third aged over 35 years. Only 16 percent of 15-44 year old population in Queensland was aged between 20 and 24 years—substantially lower than students from the United States (74%), Malaysia (63%), the People's Republic of China (61%) and India (56%).

Table 43: Estimated annual at-risk population by gender and country, Queensland, 2005–09 (n)
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesQueensland population
Total at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year persons
2005 176,260 483 371,912 1,019 138,285 379 100,732 276 32,130 88 n/a 858,014
2006 480,711 1,317 934,962 2,562 421,992 1,156 243,988 668 285,607 782 n/a 872,450
2007 793,256 2,173 1,147,580 3,144 540,760 1,482 280,773 769 304,348 834 n/a 887,515
2008 1,838,500 5,037 1,353,980 3,710 585,212 1,603 304,115 833 300,103 822 n/a 903,378
2009 3,038,697 8,325 1,649,538 4,519 559,781 1,534 342,662 939 278,529 763 n/a 919,338
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesQueensland population
Total at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year persons
2005 34,767 95 434,042 1,189 135,573 371 104,393 286 29,729 81 n/a 848,401
2006 115,794 317 1,051,037 2,880 447,653 1,226 247,139 677 463,275 1,269 n/a 862,142
2007 218,786 599 1,276,542 3,497 588,110 1,611 309,591 848 463,822 1,271 n/a 876,330
2008 574,155 1,573 1,629,295 4,464 645,953 1,770 347,425 952 457,964 1,255 n/a 890,230
2009 1,293,398 3,544 2,107,570 5,774 593,427 1,626 399,742 1,095 433,268 1,187 n/a 904,544
All students
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesQueensland population
Total at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year persons
2005 211,027 578 805,954 2,208 273,858 750 205,125 562 61,859 169 n/a 1,706,415
2006 596,505 1,634 1,985,999 5,441 869,645 2,383 491,127 1,346 748,882 2,052 n/a 1,734,592
2007 1,012,042 2,773 2,424,122 6,641 1,128,870 3,093 590,364 1,617 768,170 2,105 n/a 1,763,845
2008 2,412,655 6,610 2,983,275 8,173 1,231,165 3,373 651,540 1,785 758,067 2,077 n/a 1,793,608
2009 4,332,095 11,869 3,757,108 10,293 1,153,208 3,159 742,404 2,034 711,797 1,950 n/a 1,823,882

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Table 44: Age distribution of the annual at-risk population by gender and country, Queensland, 2009a
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesQueensland population
Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%
15–19 yrs 742 9 991 22 304 22 133 14 58 8 156,201 17
20–24 yrs 4,985 60 2,672 59 370 27 600 64 547 73 153,387 17
25–34 yrs 2,518 30 825 18 635 46 165 18 126 17 298,217 32
35–44 yrs 77 1 23 1 83 6 37 4 21 3 311,533 34
Total 8,322 4,512 1,392 935 753 919,338
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesQueensland population
Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%
15–19 yrs 169 5 1,067 19 286 19 167 15 141 12 148,992 16
20–24 yrs 1,601 45 3,619 63 558 37 677 62 882 75 145,462 16
25–34 yrs 1,672 47 1,028 18 557 37 187 17 137 12 291,788 32
35–44 yrs 97 3 48 1 94 6 54 5 16 1 318,302 35
Total 3,539 5,761 1,496 1,085 1,176 904,544
All students
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesQueensland population
Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%
15–19 yrs 911 8 2,058 20 590 20 300 15 199 10 305,193 17
20–24 yrs 6,586 56 6,290 61 928 32 1,277 63 1,429 74 298,849 16
25–34 yrs 4,190 35 1,853 18 1,193 41 352 17 263 14 590,005 32
35–44 yrs 175 1 72 1 178 6 90 4 38 2 629,835 35
Total 11,861 10,273 2,888 2,020 1,928 1,823,882

a: Totals may include students aged outside of the specified age ranges and therefore may not sum

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Experience of assault

Rate of assault victimisation

Comparison of assault data presented in this chapter with that of any other jurisdiction is not advised. Assault data is not collected or recorded consistently between the jurisdictions, thus significantly limiting the reliability of cross-jurisdictional comparisons. It is for this reason that national comparisons are not provided in this report.

Males

Between 2005 and 2009, the estimated (weighted) rate of assault for males across Queensland ranged from between 10 and 11 incidents per 1,000 of the population (see Table 45). The lowest rate of assault occurred in 2005 and 2006 and then remained constant from 2007 onwards.

For male international students, the estimated assault rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • two and nine incidents for male students from India;
  • five and 11 incidents for male students from the People's Republic of China;
  • one and nine incidents for male students from the Republic of Korea;
  • one and 1.5 incidents for male students from Malaysia; and
  • one and eight incidents for male students from the United States.

Examination of the relevant confidence intervals for each annual estimate reveals the following key conclusions:

  • In nearly all cases, the rate of assault among all international students groups was lower than the average for similarly aged males across Queensland. An exception being found among male students from the People's Republic of China in 2009 for whom the rate of assault was equal to that of males across Queensland although the confidence interval overlaps the Queensland state average due to the small sample size.
  • The rate of assault among male Indian students was higher in 2008 and 2009 compared with students from the People's Republic of China, although the overlapping confidence intervals indicate no statistical difference.

Females

Females across Queensland experienced a relatively stable estimated (weighted) rate of assault; fluctuating between seven and eight incidents per 1,000 of the population.

For female international students, the estimated assault rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • one incident for female students from India in 2009;
  • 0.3 and one incident for female students from the People's Republic of China
  • one incident for female students from the Republic of Korea;
  • one and four incidents for female students from Malaysia; and
  • one and eight incidents for female students from the United States.

As was the case for male students, examination of the confidence intervals illustrate that in nearly all cases the rate of assault victimisation among international students was lower than the average for similarly aged females across Queensland.

Further, the confidence intervals indicate little statistical difference between the five source countries across the five year period.

Table 45: Rate of assault by gender and country, Queensland, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesQueensland population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 0 0 1 9.4^^ 0 0 10.4
(1.9–27.4) (10.2–10.6)
2006 5 2.3^ 9 5.1^ 3 0.9^^ 1 1.5^^ 1 1.3^^ 10.4
(0.5–6.7) (2.7–8.7) (0.0–5.3) (0.0–8.4) (0.0–7.2) (10.2–10.6)
2007 14 3.2^ 14 7.3^ 0 0 0 10.7
(1.3–6.6) (4.6–11.0) (10.4–10.9)
2008 46 7.5 7 4.6^ 4 1.3^^ 1 1.2^^ 3 4.9^^ 10.7
(5.3–10.4) (2.7–7.3) (0.2–4.9) (0.0–6.7) (1.3–12.7) (10.5–10.9)
2009 97 8.7 18 11.1 5 1.4^ 0 0 11.1
(6.8–10.9) (8.2–14.6) (0.2–5.2) (10.8–11.3)
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesQueensland population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 0 1 0.8^^ 0 1 3.6^^ 0 7.3
(0.0–4.7) (0.1–20.0) (7.1–7.5)
2006 0 1 0.3^^ 0 1 1.5^^ 1 0.8^^ 7.7
(0.0–1.9) (0.0–8.4) (0.0–4.4) (7.5–7.9)
2007 0 1 0.3^^ 1 0.7^^ 0 1 2.4^^ 7.4
(0.0–1.6) (0.0–3.7) (0.5–6.9) (7.2–7.5)
2008 0 4 0.9^^ 2 0.6^^ 1 1.1^^ 0 7.3
(0.2–2.3) (0.0–3.4) (0.0–5.9) (7.1–7.5)
2009 2 0.8^^ 2 0.3^^ 0 0 1 7.7^^ 8.2
(0.2–2.5) (0.0–1.3) (3.5–14.5) (8.0–8.4)

^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 25% should be interpreted with caution

^^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 50% should be interpreted with extreme caution

(n–n) The numbers in parentheses beneath the point estimates (rates) indicate the lower and upper band confidence intervals

Note: Comparison of this data with that of any other jurisdiction is not advised. Assault data is not collected or recorded consistently between the jurisdictions, thus significantly limiting the reliability of cross-jurisdictional comparisons. It is for this reason that national comparisons are not provided in this report

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Location of assault

Comparative analysis of assault against male students from four of the five source countries (the number of assaults recorded for students from the United States limits meaningful analysis) reveals a number of interesting findings:

  • For all male students, the location most frequently recorded for assaults was 'street/open space', although the frequency varied by country (see Table 46). Street/open space was recorded for 50 percent of assaults among male students from Malaysia, 47 percent for male students from the People's Republic of China, 46 percent of assaults among male Indian students and 46 percent for male students from the Republic of Korea.
  • The second most frequently recorded location for assaults against male Indian students in Queensland was in the commercial hospitality sector (23%). This was disproportionately higher than for male students from the Republic of Korea (15%), and the People's Republic of China (15%).
  • Residential assaults were the third (or equal second) most common location among male students from the People's Republic of China (15%), the Republic of Korea (15%) and India (13%).

The number of recorded assaults against females in Queensland is relatively small and so comparative analysis is limited.

Table 46: Location of recorded assaults by gender and country, Queensland, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 69 46 22 47 6 46 1 50 0
Residential 20 13 7 15 2 15 0 0
Commercial—Retail 14 9 9 18 2 15 1 50 0
Commercial—Hospitality/ entertainment 34 23 7 15 2 15 0 0
Commercial—Financial services 0 0 0 0 1 50
Commercial—Other 5 3 0 1 8 0 0
Public transport 6 4 2 4 0 0 0
Educational 1 1 0 0 0 1 50
Other 1 1 0 0 0 0
Total 150 47 13 2 2
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 1 50 4 44 1 33 1 33 2 67
Residential 0 3 33 2 67 1 33 0
Commercial—Retail 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Hospitality/ entertainment 1 50 0 0 1 33 1 33
Commercial—Financial services 0 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Other 0 1 11 0 0 0
Public transport 0 1 11 0 0 0
Educational 0 0 0 0 0
Other 0 0 0 0 0
Total 2 9 3 3 3

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Temporal pattern of assault

The majority of assaults against male international students occurred between the hours of 8 pm and 4 am, though some differences were identified between the five countries (see Table 47). Among those assaulted during these hours were:

  • Seventy-three percent of male students from India;
  • Sixty-one percent of male students from the People's Republic of China;
  • Forty-six percent of male students from the Republic of Korea; and
  • two Malaysian and 2 male students from the United States.

Daytime assaults (between 8 am and 4 pm) were relatively infrequent among all male student groups, only six percent were recorded for males from India, eight percent for males from China and eight percent of males from the Republic of Korea.

The number of recorded assaults against females in Queensland is relatively small and limits comparative analysis.

Male students were more likely to experience assaults during the weekend period (Friday, Saturday and Sunday; see Table 48). This period typically accounted for the majority of assaults against male students from India (70%), the People's Republic of China (62%) and the Republic of Korea (46%).

Table 47: Time of day of assaults by gender and country, Queensland, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 57 38 11 23 4 31 2 100 1 50
4 am–8 am 12 8 3 6 4 31 0 0
8 am–noon 4 3 2 4 1 8 0 0
Noon–4 pm 5 3 2 4 0 0 0
4 pm–8 pm 20 13 12 25 2 15 0 0
8 pm–midnight 53 35 18 38 2 15 0 1 50
Total 151 48 13 2 2
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 1 50 0 0 1 33 1 33
4 am–8 am 0 0 0 0 0
8 am–noon 0 0 0 0 0
Noon–4 pm 0 2 22 1 33 1 33 0
4 pm–8 pm 1 50 2 22 0 0 1 33
8 pm–midnight 0 5 56 2 67 1 33 1 33
Total 2 9 3 3 3

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Table 48: Day of week of assaults by gender and country, Queensland, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 48 32 4 8 2 15 0 1 50
Monday 15 10 4 8 0 0 0
Tuesday 6 4 3 6 3 23 0 0
Wednesday 9 6 4 8 2 15 1 50 0
Thursday 16 11 7 15 2 15 1 50 1 50
Friday 22 15 12 25 1 8 0 0
Saturday 35 23 14 29 3 23 0 0
Total 151 48 13 2 2
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 1 50 0 0 0 1 33
Monday 0 1 11 1 33 1 33 0
Tuesday 1 50 1 11 0 0 2 67
Wednesday 0 1 11 1 33 1 33 0
Thursday 0 0 0 0 0
Friday 0 3 33 1 33 0 0
Saturday 0 3 33 0 1 33 0
Total 2 9 3 3 3

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Experience of robbery

Rate of robbery victimisation

Males

Between 2005 and 2009, the estimated (weighted) rate of robbery for males across Queensland remained constant on one incident per 1,000 of the population (see Table 49).

For male international students, the estimated assault rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • one and five incidents for male students from India;
  • two and four incidents for male students from the People's Republic of China;
  • one and three incidents for male students from the Republic of Korea;
  • one incident for male students from Malaysia; and
  • two incidents for male students from the United States.

Examination of the relevant confidence intervals for each annual estimate reveals the following key conclusions:

  • The rate of robbery experienced by Indian male students was statistically higher in the most recent years (2008 and 2009) compared with the Queensland population average.
  • The rate of robbery experienced by male students from the People's Republic of China was significantly higher than the Queensland average in 2008 and approached significance in 2009 also.

Females

Females across Queensland experienced an estimated (weighted) rate of robbery between 0.4 and 0.6 incidents per 1,000 of the population from 2006 onwards. For female international students, the estimated assault rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population was:

  • 0.3 incidents for female students from India in 2009;
  • two incidents for female students from Malaysia;
  • one incident for female students from the United States;
  • between 0.5 and one incident for female students from the People's Republic of China; and
  • one and three incidents for female students from the Republic of Korea.

There were no instances where the rate of robbery among female international students was significantly higher than the Queensland population average.

Table 49: Rate of robbery by gender and country, Queensland, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesQueensland population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 0 2 3.0^^ 0 0 0 1.2
(0.6–8.6) (1.1–1.3)
2006 3 2.3^^ 5 2.0^ 0 0 0 1.3
(0.5–6.7) (0.6–4.6) (1.2–1.4)
2007 3 1.4^^ 5 1.9^ 4 2.9^^ 0 0 1.1
(0.3–4.0) (0.7–4.2) (0.8–7.5) (1.1–1.2)
2008 14 2.8^ 15 3.8^ 1 0.7^^ 1 1.2^^ 1 2.5^^ 1.3
(1.5–4.7) (2.1–6.3) (0.0–3.7) (0.0–6.7) (0.3–8.9) (1.2–1.3)
2009 37 4.6 11 2.7^ 1 1.4^^ 0 0 1.3
(3.2–6.3) (1.4–4.6) (0.2–5.2) (1.2–1.3)
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesQueensland population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 0 1 0.8^^ 1 3.1^^ 0 0 0.6
(0.0–4.7) (0.1–17.4) (0.5–0.6)
2006 0 3 0.0^^ 0 1 1.5^^ 1 0.8^^ 0.5
(0.0–1.3) (0.0–8.4) (0.0–4.4) (0.5–0.5)
2007 0 7 0.9^ 3 1.3^^ 0 0 0.5
(0.2–2.5) (0.2–4.8) (0.4–0.5)
2008 0 5 0.4^ 0 0 1 0.8^^ 0.4
(0.1–1.6) (0.0–4.5) (0.4–0.5)
2009 1 0.3^^ 4 0.5^^ 3 1.3^^ 0 0 0.4
(0.0–1.6) (0.1–1.5) (0.2–4.8) (0.4–0.5)

^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 25% should be interpreted with caution

^^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 50% should be interpreted with extreme caution

(n–n) The numbers in parentheses beneath the point estimates (rates) indicate the lower and upper band confidence intervals

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Location of robbery

Comparative analysis of robberies recorded against male students from three of the five source countries (the number of recorded assaults against males from Malaysia and the United States is relatively small and limits comparative analysis) reveals a number of interesting findings.

  • For all male students, the location most frequently recorded for robbery was 'street/open space', although the frequency varied by country (see Table 50). Street/open space was recorded for 83 percent of robberies among male students from the Republic of Korea, 71 percent of robberies among male Indian students and 65 percent for male students from the People's Republic of China.
  • Overall, commercial locations (including retail, hospitality and financial services) comprised 18 percent of all robberies recorded for Indian male students in Queensland.
  • Residential robberies were relatively infrequent across all countries, representing just three percent of robberies among Chinese male students and two percent of Indian students.
  • Seven percent of all robberies recorded for male students from India and 14 percent for Chinese males occurred on or near public transport facilities—including taxis and taxi ranks.

The number of recorded assaults against female in Queensland is relatively small and so comparative analysis is limited.

Table 50: Location of recorded robberies by gender and country, Queensland, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 40 71 24 65 5 83 1 100 0
Residential 1 2 1 3 0 0 1 100
Commercial—Retail 4 7 3 8 0 0 0
Commercial—Hospitality/ entertainment 4 7 4 11 1 17 0 0
Commercial—Financial services 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Other 2 4 0 0 0 0
Public transport 4 7 5 14 0 0 0
Educational 0 0 0 0 0
Other 1 2 0 0 0 0
Total 56 37 6 1 1
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 1 100 14 70 6 86 1 100 1 50
Residential 0 2 10 1 14 0 1 50
Commercial—Retail 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Hospitality/ entertainment 0 1 5 0 0 0
Commercial—Financial services 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Other 0 1 5 0 0 0
Public transport 0 2 10 0 0 0
Educational 0 0 0 0 0
Other 0 0 0 0 0
Total 1 20 7 1 2

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Temporal pattern of robbery

The majority of robberies in Queensland against male international students occurred between the hours of 8 pm and 4 am, though some differences were identified between the five countries (see Table 51). Those most likely to be robbed during these hours were male students from the Republic of Korea (84%), India (83%) and the People's Republic of China (81%). Of those robberies that were recorded between 8 pm and 8 am, the majority occurred before midnight for all three countries.

Daytime robberies (between 8 am and 4 pm) were relatively rare among male students, comprising only six percent of robberies against Indian males and three percent of Chinese males.

As with males, robberies experienced by female international students in Queensland were most often recorded as having occurred during evening (between 8 pm to 4 am); this was the case for 75 percent of robberies against female Chinese students and 57 percent of Korean students. The number of robberies experienced by female students from India, Malaysia and the United States limits meaningful comparative analysis.

Analysis by the day of the week on which robberies were recorded showed no remarkable findings between countries or by gender (see Table 52). For Indian male students, the distribution of robbery across the week was roughly equal, ranging from between 12 and 18 percent, with the exception of Thursday (5%) and Saturday (23%). A similar pattern was evident for robberies against Chinese male students.

Table 51: Time of day of robberies by gender and country, Queensland, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 21 37 10 26 1 17 0 1 100
4 am–8 am 4 7 1 3 1 17 0 0
8 am–noon 1 2 0 0 0 0
Noon–4 pm 2 4 1 3 0 0 0
4 pm–8 pm 3 5 5 13 0 0 0
8 pm–midnight 26 46 21 55 4 67 1 100 0
Total 57 38 6 1 1
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 1 100 3 15 0 0 1 50
4 am–8 am 0 0 0 0 0
8 am–noon 0 1 5 0 0 0
Noon–4 pm 0 1 5 1 14 1 100 0
4 pm–8 pm 0 3 15 2 29 0 0
8 pm–midnight 0 12 60 4 57 0 1 50
Total 1 20 7 1 2

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Table 52: Day of week of robberies by gender and country, Queensland, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 9 16 5 13 2 33 0 0
Monday 7 12 6 16 1 17 0 0
Tuesday 10 18 5 13 0 0 0
Wednesday 8 14 4 11 0 0 0
Thursday 3 5 3 8 0 0 0
Friday 7 12 6 16 2 33 1 100 0
Saturday 13 23 9 24 1 17 0 1 100
Total 57 38 6 1 1
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 0 3 15 0 0 1 50
Monday 0 3 15 0 1 100 0
Tuesday 1 100 2 10 0 0 0
Wednesday 0 2 10 0 0 0
Thursday 0 0 3 43 0 0
Friday 0 6 30 2 29 0 0
Saturday 0 4 20 2 29 0 1 50
Total 1 20 7 1 2

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Experience of other theft

Rate of other theft victimisation

The ABS was unable to provide age and gender breakdowns for other theft data from Recorded Crime Victims. As a result, the state averages presented for the category of other theft are provided to give some context against which the student rates of other theft may be considered; however, the two are not directly comparable and it is important to exercise caution when interpreting the results.

Between 2005 and 2009, the rate of other theft for all persons across Queensland ranged from between 18 and 24 incidents per 1,000 of the population (see Table 53). The lowest rate was recorded in 2008; the highest rate was recorded in 2005.

Males

For male international students, the estimated other theft rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • ten and 24 incidents for male students from India;
  • nine and 18 incidents for male students from the People's Republic of China;
  • seven and 22 incidents for male students from the Republic of Korea;
  • four and 22 incidents for male students from Malaysia; and
  • three and 36 incidents for male students from the United States.

With the exception of India and the United States, the rate of other theft has generally declined over the 2005–09 period.

Examination of the relevant confidence intervals for each annual estimate reveals the following key conclusion:

  • The rate of other theft experienced by Indian male students was statistically higher in the most recent year compared with male students from all other countries.

Females

For female international students, the estimated other theft rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population was between:

  • three and 42 incidents for female students from India;
  • four and 12 incidents for female students from the People's Republic of China;
  • nine and 25 incidents for female students from the Republic of Korea;
  • zero and 9 incidents for female students from Malaysia; and
  • six and 26 incidents for female students from the United States.
Table 53: Rate of theft by gender and country, Queensland, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesQueensland population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 11 22.8^ 14 11.8^ 5 21.9^^ 6 21.8^^ 3 35.9^^ 23.5
(11.4–40.8) (6.1–20.6) (8.8–45.2) (8.0–47.5) (7.4–105.0) (23.3–23.6)
2006 27 21.3 26 18.4 19 18.0^ 6 7.5^ 7 6.5^ 22.0
(14.1–30.7) (13.5–24.4) (10.9–28.2) (2.4–17.6) (2.1–15.1) (21.8–22.1)
2007 22 10.1^ 30 9.2 17 16.1^ 3 3.9^^ 15 17.0^ 18.7
(6.3–15.3) (6.2–13.3) (10.1–24.3) (0.8–11.5) (9.3–28.6) (18.6–18.8)
2008 95 19.1 43 11.1 21 14.8^ 7 8.4^ 2 2.5^^ 18.2
(15.4–23.3) (7.9–15.0) (9.3–22.4) (3.4–17.4) (0.3–8.9) (18.1–18.3)
2009 204 23.8 45 10.0 10 7.2^^ 7 8.6^ 8 9.3^^ 19.0
(20.6–27.3) (7.3–13.3) (3.4–13.2) (3.7–16.9) (3.7–19.2) (18.8–19.1)
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesQueensland population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 4 42.0^^ 11 10.1^ 7 25.0^ 1 0.0^ 2 25.5^^ 23.5
(11.4–107.5) (5.2–17.7) (10.8–49.3) (0.0–13.2) (3.1–92.1) (23.3–23.6)
2006 5 15.8^ 30 11.5 12 12.5^ 7 9.0^ 16 10.3^ 22.0
(5.1–36.8) (7.9–16.1) (6.9–21.0) (3.3–19.6) (5.5–17.6) (21.8–22.1)
2007 2 3.3^^ 15 4.3^ 12 8.7^ 3 3.6^^ 9 5.5^ 18.7
(0.4–12.1) (2.4–7.1) (4.6–14.8) (0.7–10.5) (2.2–11.4) (18.6–18.8)
2008 6 3.8^ 33 7.4 19 13.3 1 0.0^^ 8 7.2^ 18.2
(1.4–8.3) (5.1–10.4) (8.4–20.2) (0.0–3.9) (3.3–13.7) (18.1–18.3)
2009 18 5.7 33 5.6 10 8.7 7 6.5^^ 7 6.0^ 19.0
(3.5–8.7) (3.8–7.8) (4.6–14.9) (2.6–13.3) (2.4–12.3) (18.8–19.1)

^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 25% should be interpreted with caution

^^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 50% should be interpreted with extreme caution

(n–n) The numbers in parentheses beneath the point estimates (rates) indicate the lower and upper band confidence intervals

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]