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Western Australia

The Western Australian student sample

Between 2005 and 2009 inclusive, 24,810 international students from the five source countries were identified as having commenced study at an institution or course located in Western Australia (see Table 54). This includes students who commenced study prior to 2005, but were known to be continuing their studies in Western Australia in 2005. Overall, Western Australia accounted for six percent of all international students studying in Australia between 2005 and 2009.

Almost one-third of students studying to study in Western Australia were from the People's Republic of China (n=7,816; 32%), followed by Malaysia (n=6,651; 27%), India (n=5,648; 22%), the United States (n=2,808; 11%) and Korea (n=1,887; 8%).

Over the five year period, the number of international students studying in Western Australia remained relatively stable.

Table 54: Annual student arrivals by gender and country, Western Australia, 2005–09 (n)
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTotal
2005 236 828 157 766 44 2,031
2006 334 731 321 686 286 2,358
2007 719 590 233 557 305 2,404
2008 1,501 776 143 550 261 3,231
2009 1,444 1,093 89 652 247 3,525
Total 4,234 4,018 943 3,211 1,143 13,549
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTotal
2005 62 801 144 754 48 1,809
2006 97 675 328 701 496 2,297
2007 188 570 236 633 234 1,861
2008 455 809 159 767 459 2,649
2009 612 943 77 585 428 2,645
Total 1,414 3,798 944 3,440 1,665 11,261
All students
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTotal
2005 298 1,629 301 1,520 92 3,840
2006 431 1,406 649 1,387 782 4,655
2007 907 1,160 469 1,190 539 4,265
2008 1,956 1,585 302 1,317 720 5,880
2009 2,056 2,036 166 1,237 675 6,170
Total 5,648 7,816 1,887 6,651 2,808 24,810

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Estimating the 'at-risk' student population

For the reasons described in the Methodology section, the calculation of victimisation rates required a reliable estimate of the 'at-risk' population in each year and for each of the five international student source countries; in this case, a summary estimate of the number of students who studied within Western Australia for the entire 365 days in each year. It is calculated as the sum of the number of days all students were 'at risk' within the relevant year, divided by 365. These estimates were notionally larger than those presented above because students were not only counted in the year in which they arrive, but also counted in any subsequent years of study.

Overall, the distribution of 'at-risk' students is roughly equal with the distribution among student arrivals for all countries (see Figure 18). The United States had less than half the proportion of 'at-risk' students as arrivals over the period (11% vs 5%). One probable explanation is that students from the United States study in Australia for shorter periods of time and therefore have less 'at-risk' time over multiple years. Averaged across the five years, the Republic of Korea had the smallest student group in Western Australia.

Figure 18: Annual student arrivals and estimated annual at-risk population by country of birth, Western Australia (%)

Figure 18: Annual student arrivals and estimated annual at-risk population by country of birth, Western Australia (%)

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Finally, the last column presented in Table 55 provides comparative population estimates for the annualised Western Australia population aged between 15 and 44 years. These estimates are derived from the ABS population census projections and are used as the basis on which statewide victimisation rates are calculated (with the exception of the other theft category.

The international student groups arriving to study in Western Australia were not homogenous, varying significantly by both gender and age. In terms of gender, just over half of all students arriving in Western Australia were male (55%); however, males arriving from India substantially outnumbered female arrivals over the five year period (75% vs 25%). Conversely, the number of female students outnumbered males arriving from the United States (59% vs 41%) and Malaysia (52% vs 48%). The gender differential was roughly equal for students arriving from the Republic of Korea (50% female vs 50% male) and the People's Republic of China (49% female vs 51% male).

These patterns were also generally consistent for the calculated annual 'at-risk' populations, where in 2009 for example, male students from India made up 76 percent of the total Indian 'at-risk' population and female students from Malaysia comprised just over half of the 'at-risk' population. For the other countries, there were more 'at-risk' female students than male students in 2009.

In terms of age, the vast majority of all students were aged between 20 and 35 years. In 2009, this age group comprised 89 percent of 'at-risk' students from India, 85 percent from the United States, 79 percent of students from the People's Republic of China, 74 percent from the Republic of Korea and 73 percent from Malaysia. Younger students (those aged between 15 and 19 years) were disproportionally over-represented among those from Malaysia (24%), the People's Republic of China (20%) and the Republic of Korea (18%) when compared with the United States (11%) and India (10%).

Even more telling is the joint age and gender distribution for each country in 2009, with as many as 44 percent of all 'at-risk' students from India and 32 percent of students from the People's Republic of China being males aged between 20 and 24 years (see Table 56). By contrast, the single age/gender combination with the highest proportional population of 'at-risk' students from Malaysia (31%) and the United States (42%) was females aged 20–24 years. Males aged between 25 and 34 were most 'at-risk' among students from the Republic of Korea (27%).

Finally, it is important to note the comparative differences in age and gender for each international student group when compared with the WA population. Specifically, 51 percent of the WA population aged between 15 and 44 years was male; 49 percent was female. Over half of the population (combined and separate for male and female populations) were aged over 25 years; one-third aged over 35 years. Only 17 percent of 15–44 year old population in Western Australia was aged between 20 and 24 years—substantially lower than students from the United States (65%), the People's Republic of China (62%), Malaysia (61%) and India (55%).

Table 55: Estimated annual at-risk population by gender and country, Western Australia, 2005–09 (n)
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesWestern Australian population
Total at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year persons
2005 55,653 152 190,944 523 31,056 85 198,801 545 9,935 27 n/a 443,557
2006 146,482 401 44,2862 1,213 120,260 329 443,309 1,215 77,916 213 n/a 449,295
2007 305,986 838 559,242 1,532 154,869 424 528,460 1,448 90,266 247 n/a 454,997
2008 647,830 1,775 684,110 1,874 155,957 427 587,530 1,610 92,902 255 n/a 460,754
2009 1,117,877 3,063 880,128 2,411 134,773 369 647,311 1,773 88,751 243 n/a 466,668
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesWestern Australian population
Total at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year persons
2005 13,046 36 181,952 498 25,519 70 187,729 514 11,013 30 n/a 431,354
2006 40,384 111 421,159 1,154 121,570 333 445,747 1,221 130,520 358 n/a 436,288
2007 86,195 236 518,007 1,419 156,121 428 532,894 1,460 152,723 418 n/a 441,260
2008 172,712 473 647,296 1,773 155,543 426 618,697 1,695 157,952 433 n/a 446,408
2009 357,106 978 801,282 2,195 126,652 347 661,292 1,812 141,919 389 n/a 451,504
All students
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesWestern Australian population
Total at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year persons
2005 68,699 188 372,896 1,022 56,575 155 386,530 1,059 20,948 57 n/a 874,911
2006 186,866 512 864,021 2,367 241,830 663 889,056 2,436 208,436 571 n/a 885,583
2007 392,181 1,074 1,077,249 2,951 310,990 852 1,061,354 2,908 242,989 666 n/a 896,257
2008 820,542 2,248 1,331,406 3,648 311,500 853 1,206,227 3,305 250,854 687 n/a 907,162
2009 1,474,983 4,041 1,681,410 4,607 261,425 716 1,308,603 3,585 230,670 632 n/a 918,172

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Table 56: Age distribution of the annual at-risk population by gender and country, Western Australia 2009a
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesWestern Australian population
Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%
15–19 yrs 326 11 512 21 62 19 437 25 25 11 76,633 16
20–24 yrs 1,772 58 1,479 62 69 21 1,056 60 146 61 78,649 17
25–34 yrs 929 30 397 17 172 52 212 12 57 24 151,382 32
35–44 yrs 28 1 16 1 25 8 46 3 11 4 160,004 34
Total 3,056 2,404 328 1,749 238 466,668
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesWestern Australian population
Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%
15–19 yrs 61 6 407 19 50 16 394 22 45 12 72,910 16
20–24 yrs 426 44 1,383 63 101 33 1,083 61 261 68 73,659 16
25–34 yrs 452 46 368 17 125 41 218 12 68 18 145,841 32
35–44 yrs 36 4 33 1 28 9 88 5 10 3 159,094 35
Total 975 2,192 305 1,783 384 451,504
All students
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesWestern Australian population
Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%
15–19 yrs 388 10 920 20 111 18 831 24 70 11 149,543 16
20–24 yrs 2,199 55 2,862 62 171 27 2,138 61 406 65 152,308 17
25–34 yrs 1,381 34 765 17 298 47 429 12 125 20 297,223 32
35–44 yrs 64 2 49 1 53 8 134 4 21 3 319,098 35
Total 4,031 4,595 633 3,532 623 918,172

a: Totals may include students aged outside of the specified age ranges and therefore may not sum

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Experience of assault

Rate of assault victimisation

Comparison of assault data presented in this chapter with that of any other jurisdiction is not advised. Assault data is not collected or recorded consistently between the jurisdictions, thus significantly limiting the reliability of cross-jurisdictional comparisons. It is for this reason that national comparisons are not provided in this report.

Males

Between 2005 and 2009, the estimated (weighted) rate of assault for males across Western Australia ranged from between 21 and 24 incidents per 1,000 of the population (see Table 57). The lowest rate of assault occurred in 2005; the highest rate occurred in 2009.

For male international students, the estimated assault rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • ten and 20 incidents for male students from India;
  • two and four incidents for male students from the People's Republic of China;
  • zero and 15 incidents for male students from the Republic of Korea;
  • two and three incidents for male students from Malaysia; and
  • four and 10 incidents for male students from the United States.

Examination of the relevant confidence intervals for each annual estimate reveals the following key conclusions:

  • In many cases, the rate of assault among all international students groups was lower than the average for similarly aged males across Western Australia. Exceptions were found where confidence intervals overlapped the WA state average and included:
    • male students from India in 2005, 2006 and 2007;
    • male students from the Republic of Korea in 2008; and
    • male students from the United States in 2006 and 2009.
  • The rate of assault among male Indian students was higher from 2007 onwards compared with students from the People's Republic of China.
  • The rate of assault was not higher for male Indian students compared with students from the United States in 2006 and 2009.

The rate of assault victimisation among male students from India was lower than the Western Australian average in 2008 and 2009.

Females

Females across Western Australia experienced an estimated (weighted) rate of assault of between 22 and 24 incidents per 1,000 of the population. The lowest rate of assault was recorded in 2005 and 2006; the highest rate in 2009.

For female international students, the estimated assault rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • four and 13 incidents for female students from India;
  • one and four incidents for female students from the People's Republic of China;
  • zero and three incidents for female students from the Republic of Korea;
  • one and two incidents for female students from Malaysia; and
  • five and 12 incidents for female students from the United States.

As was the case for male students, examination of the confidence intervals illustrate that in nearly all cases, the rate of assault victimisation among international students from the People's Republic of China, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and the United States (with the exception of 2008) was lower than the average for similarly aged females across Western Australia.

Further, the confidence intervals indicate little statistical difference between the five source counties, the exception being in 2009 where the rate of assault among female Indian students was statistically higher than among students from the People's Republic of China.

Table 57: Rate of assault by gender and country, Western Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesWA population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 2 19.7^^ 2 1.9^^ 0 0 0 21.4
(4.1–57.5) (0.0–10.7) (21.0–21.9)
2006 1 12.5^^ 7 4.1^ 1 0.0^^ 2 3.3^^ 3 9.5^^ 22.0
(4.0–29.1) (1.3–9.6) (0.0–12.0) (0.9–8.5) (1.2–34.4) (21.5–22.4)
2007 10 15.5^ 6 2.0^ 1 0.0^^ 0 0 23.0
(8.3–26.5) (0.4–5.7) (0.0–9.4) (22.5–23.4)
2008 18 9.6 6 2.7^ 3 15.5^^ 3 1.9^^ 0 22.8
(5.6–15.3) (0.9–6.2) (5.7–33.8) (0.4–5.5) (22.3–23.2)
2009 57 14.4 6 2.5^ 0 4 2.3^^ 2 4.2^^ 24.1
(10.5–19.3) (0.9–5.4) (0.6–5.9) (0.1–23.4) (23.7–24.5)
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesWA population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 0 2 4.0^^ 0 0 0 21.9
(0.5–14.5) (21.5–22.3)
2006 0 1 0.9^^ 1 3.3^^ 2 1.7^^ 0 22.4
(0.0–4.8) (0.1–18.4) (0.2–6.0) (21.9–22.8)
2007 1 4.3^^ 2 1.4^^ 0 0 0 23.3
(0.1–23.9) (0.2–5.1) (22.9–23.8)
2008 0 5 2.8^ 1 0.0^^ 3 1.8^^ 5 11.7^ 22.7
(0.9–6.6) (0.0–9.5) (0.4–5.3) (3.8–27.2) (22.3–23.2)
2009 8 13.3^ 4 1.8^^ 1 0.0^^ 1 0.6^^ 1 5.2^^ 23.8
(7.1–22.8) (0.5–4.7) (0.0–12.1) (0.0–3.1) (0.6–18.8) (23.3–24.2)

^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 25% should be interpreted with caution

^^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 50% should be interpreted with extreme caution

(n–n) The numbers in parentheses beneath the point estimates (rates) indicate the lower and upper band confidence intervals

Note: Comparison of this data with that of any other jurisdiction is not advised. Assault data is not collected or recorded consistently between the jurisdictions, thus significantly limiting the reliability of cross-jurisdictional comparisons. It is for this reason that national comparisons are not provided in this report

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Location of assault

Comparative analysis of assault against male students from each of the five source countries reveals a number of interesting findings.

  • For all male students, the location most frequently recorded for assaults was 'street/open space', although the frequency varied by country (see Table 58). Street/open space was recorded for 100 percent of assaults among male students from the Republic of Korea, 60 percent for male students from the United States, 48 percent for male students from the People's Republic of China and 32 percent of assaults among male Indian students. None were recorded for male students from Malaysia.
  • The second most frequently recorded location for assaults against male Indian students in Western Australia was in the commercial retail sector (22%). This was disproportionately higher than for male students from Malaysia (11%) and the People's Republic of China (11%). Overall, commercial locations (including retail, hospitality and financial services) comprised nearly half of assaults recorded against male students from India (46%), 44 percent of male students from Malaysia, almost one-third of Chinese male students (31%) and 20 percent for male students from the United States. None were recorded for male students from the Republic of Korea.
  • Residential assaults were more frequently recorded among male students from Malaysia (56%), the People's Republic of China (22%) and India (18%), compared with male students from the Republic of Korea (n=0) and the United States (n=0).
  • Two in five assaults recorded for male students from India occurred in the commercial retail sector (22%). This was twice the proportion recorded for male students from the People's Republic of China and Malaysia. None were recorded for male students from the Republic of Korea and the United States.

The number of recorded assaults against females in Western Australia is relatively small and so comparative analysis is limited. However, the findings indicate a number of key points:

  • Students from the People's Republic of China, Malaysia and the Republic of Korea were most likely to experience assault at a residential location (57%, 50% and 33%, respectively).
  • Assaults against students from India and the United States were more recently recorded as having occurred on the street or in open spaces (44% and 67%, respectively).
  • Students from Malaysia and the Republic of Korea were equally likely to experience assault at a residential location or on the street or in an open space (50% and 33%, respectively).
Table 58: Location of recorded assaults by gender and country, Western Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 25 32 13 48 5 100 0 3 60
Residential 14 18 6 22 0 5 56 0
Commercial—Retail 17 22 3 11 0 1 11 0
Commercial—Hospitality/ entertainment 18 23 4 15 0 3 33 1 20
Commercial—Financial services 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Other 1 1 1 4 0 0 0
Public transport 2 3 0 0 0 1 20
Educational 0 0 0 0 0
Other 0 0 0 0 0
Total 77 27 5 9 5
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 4 44 5 36 1 33 3 50 4 67
Residential 3 33 8 57 1 33 3 50 1 17
Commercial—Retail 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Hospitality/ entertainment 1 11 1 7 0 0 0
Commercial—Financial services 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Other 0 0 0 0 0
Public transport 1 11 0 1 33 0 1 17
Educational 0 0 0 0 0
Other 0 0 0 0 0
Total 9 14 3 6 6

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Temporal pattern of assault

The majority of assaults against male international students occurred between the hours of 8 pm and 4 am, although some differences were identified between the five countries (see Table 59). Those most likely to be assaulted during these hours were male students from Malaysia (100%), followed by students from the United States (80%) and the Republic of Korea (80%), the People's Republic of China (71%) and India (63%).

Daytime assaults (between 8 am and 4 pm) were relatively infrequent among all male student groups, but less so among students from the Republic of Korea (20%), United States (20%), India (9%) and the People's Republic of China (7%). No daytime assaults were recorded for students from Malaysia.

Assaults against female international students in Western Australia were more often recorded as having occurred during the day time and early evening (between 8 am to 8 pm)—this was the case for 93 percent of assaults against students from the People's Republic of China, 66 percent of assaults against female students from India and the Republic of Korea and 34 percent of Malaysian students. The exception was for female students from the United States, for whom most assaults (83%) were recorded between 8 pm and midnight.

Analysis by the day of the week on which assaults were recorded showed no remarkable findings (see Table 60). The weekend period (Friday, Saturday and Sunday) typically accounted for the majority of assaults against male students from Malaysia (88%), the United States (80%) and the Republic of Korea (60%). While the weekend period accounted for over half of assaults against male students from India (55%) and the People's Republic of China (52%), assaults were more evenly distributed across the week for these groups.

Table 59: Time of day of assaults by gender and country, Western Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 25 32 8 30 2 40 5 56 2 40
4 am–8 am 11 14 1 4 0 0 0
8 am–noon 3 4 0 0 0 0
Noon–4 pm 4 5 2 7 1 20 0 1 20
4 pm–8 pm 10 13 5 19 0 0 0
8 pm–midnight 24 31 11 41 2 40 4 44 2 40
Total 77 27 5 9 5
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 2 22 0 0 2 33 0
4 am–8 am 0 0 0 0 1 17
8 am–noon 2 22 3 21 0 0 0
Noon–4 pm 0 6 43 1 33 1 17 0
4 pm–8 pm 4 44 4 29 1 33 1 17 0
8 pm–midnight 1 11 1 7 1 33 2 33 5 83
Total 9 14 3 6 6

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Table 60: Day of week of assaults by gender and country, Western Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 11 14 7 26 0 3 33 1 20
Monday 10 13 4 15 1 20 1 11 0
Tuesday 8 10 5 19 1 20 0 0
Wednesday 9 12 1 4 0 0 0
Thursday 7 9 3 11 0 0 1 20
Friday 7 9 4 15 1 20 3 33 1 20
Saturday 25 32 3 11 2 40 2 22 2 40
Total 77 27 5 9 5
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 1 11 1 7 0 2 33 3 50
Monday 1 11 2 14 1 33 1 17 0
Tuesday 1 11 1 7 0 1 17 0
Wednesday 0 2 14 0 0 0
Thursday 3 33 3 21 1 33 2 33 3 50
Friday 1 11 3 21 0 0 0
Saturday 2 22 2 14 1 33 0 0
Total 9 14 3 6 6

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Experience of robbery

Rate of robbery victimisation

Males

Between 2005 and 2009, the estimated (weighted) rate of robbery for males across Western Australia ranged from between two and three incidents per 1,000 of the population (see Table 61).

For male international students, the estimated assault rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • one and 20 incidents for male students from India;
  • two and six incidents for male students from the People's Republic of China; and
  • three and 10 incidents for male students from the Republic of Korea.

The rate of robbery for male students from Malaysia and the United States remained steady over the period (2 and 4 incidents respectively).

Examination of the relevant confidence intervals for each annual estimate reveals the following key conclusions:

  • The rate of robbery experienced by Indian male students was statistically higher compared with the Western Australia population average in 2005, 2008 and 2009. In nearly all other cases, the rate of assault among the remaining international students groups was lower than the average for similarly aged males across Western Australia. Exceptions were found were large confidence intervals led to overlaps with the Western Australian state average.
  • Male students from the Republic of Korea experienced robbery at a rate significant higher than the Western Australia average in 2008.

Females

Females across Western Australia experienced an estimated (weighted) rate of robbery of one incident per 1,000 of the population. This was consistent over the five years between 2005 and 2009. For female international students, the estimated assault rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population was:

  • zero incidents for female students from India; and
  • zero and five incidents for female students from the People's Republic of China.

The rate of robbery for female students from the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and the United States remained steady over the period (7, 2 and 7 incidents respectively).

In all cases, the rate of robbery among female international students was not significantly higher than the Western Australia population average.

Table 61: Rate of robbery by gender and country, Western Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesWA population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 3 19.7^^ 3 5.7^^ 0 1 1.9^^ 0 2.3
(4.1–57.5) (1.2–16.8) (0.0–10.4) (2.1–2.4)
2006 2 5.0^^ 5 4.1^ 0 3 2.5^^ 0 2.5
(0.6–18.0) (1.3–9.6) (0.5–7.3) (2.4–2.7)
2007 1 1.2^^ 5 3.3^ 2 2.5^^ 4 2.1^^ 1 4.1^^ 2.6
(0.0–6.7) (1.1–7.6) (0.1–14.2) (0.4–6.1) (0.1–23.0) (2.5–2.8)
2008 11 6.2^ 5 2.7^ 2 10.4^^ 3 1.9^^ 0 2.3
(3.1–11.1) (0.9–6.2) (2.8–26.5) (0.4–5.5) (2.2–2.4)
2009 16 5.2^ 5 2.1^ 2 9.1^^ 3 2.3^^ 0 2.3
(3.0–8.5) (0.7–4.9) (1.9–26.7) (0.6–5.9) (2.2–2.5)
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesWA population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 0 2 2.0^^ 0 0 0 1.1
(0.1–11.2) (1.0–1.2)
2006 0 9 2.6^ 0 0 0 1.1
(0.5–7.6) (1.0–1.2)
2007 0 7 0.7^ 0 3 2.1^^ 2 7.2^^ 1.2
(0.0–3.9) (0.4–6.1) (1.5–21.1) (1.1–1.3)
2008 0 10 4.5^ 0 3 2.4^^ 0 1.0
(2.0–8.9) (0.7–6.1) (0.9–1.1)
2009 1 0.0^^ 1 0.0^^ 1 6.6^^ 0 0 0.8
(0.0–3.8) (0.0–1.7) (0.8–23.7) (0.7–0.9)

^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 25% should be interpreted with caution

^^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 50% should be interpreted with extreme caution

(n–n) The numbers in parentheses beneath the point estimates (rates) indicate the lower and upper band confidence intervals

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Location of robbery

Analysis of weighted robbery data revealed that the most common location for robberies of males and females across Western Australia was on the street or in open spaces (62% and 60%, respectively), followed by residential premises (17% and 18%, respectively) and commercial (retail) locations (10% and 9%, respectively; see Table 62). With the exception of robberies at residential locations, these findings generally reflected the pattern that emerged among male and female international students who had been a victim of robbery in Western Australia.

The number of recorded robberies against males in Western Australia is relatively small and so comparative analysis is limited. Among the findings worth noting are:

  • For all male students, the location most frequently recorded for robbery was 'street/open space', although the frequency varied by country. Street/open space was recorded for 100 percent of robberies among male students from the United States, 93 percent for male students from Malaysia, 83 percent for male students from the Republic of Korea, 78 percent for male students from the People's Republic of China and 48 percent of robberies among male Indian students.
  • Residential robberies were relatively infrequent across all countries.
  • Nearly one in three robberies recorded for male students from India occurred at commercial retail locations (29%). This was higher than recorded for male students from any of the remaining four countries.

The number of recorded robberies against females in Western Australia is relatively small and so comparative analysis is limited. However, it is worthwhile noting that female students from the People's Republic of China experienced a similar proportion of robberies on the street or in open spaces as Chinese males (69% and 78%, respectively).

Table 62: Location of recorded robberies by gender and country, Western Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesWA average (weighted)
n%n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 15 48 18 78 5 83 13 93 1 100 1,977 62
Residential 1 3 1 4 0 0 0 534 17
Commercial—Retail 9 29 1 5 0 0 0 304 10
Commercial—Hospitality/ entertainment 0 1 4 0 0 0 95 3
Commercial—Financial services 0 1 4 0 0 0 6 0
Commercial—Other 1 3 0 0 1 7 0 40 1
Public transport 5 16 0 0 0 0 205 6
Educational 0 1 4 1 17 0 0 27 1
Other 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 31 23 6 14 1 3,188
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesWA average (weighted)
n%n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 0 20 69 1 100 3 50 1 50 900 60
Residential 0 1 3 0 1 17 0 266 18
Commercial—Retail 1 100 1 4 0 0 0 131 9
Commercial—Hospitality/ entertainment 0 0 - 0 0 0 20 1
Commercial—Financial services 0 0 0 0 0 9 1
Commercial—Other 0 0 0 0 0 53 4
Public transport 0 6 21 0 2 33 0 109 7
Educational 0 1 3 0 0 1 50 21 1
Other 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 1 29 1 6 2 1,509

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Temporal pattern of robbery

The majority of robberies in Western Australia against male international students occurred between the hours of 8 pm and 4 am (see Table 63). Those most likely to be robbed during these hours were male students from the Republic of Korea (83%), followed by students from India and Malaysia (71% each) and the People's Republic of China (61%). Of those robberies that were recorded between 8 pm and 8 am, the majority occurred before midnight for all male students.

Daytime robberies (between 8 am and 4 pm) were relatively rare among male students, although male students from the People's Republic of China reported a higher proportion than all other student groups (13%).

The number of robberies experienced by female students across all five countries limits meaningful comparative analysis; however, it is worth noting that two-thirds of robberies against Chinese females were recorded between 8 pm and midnight.

The weekend period (Friday, Saturday and Sunday) typically accounted for most robberies against male students from India (47%), the People's Republic of China (52%), the Republic of Korea (51%), and Malaysia (28%; see Table 64). The number of robberies experienced by female students limits meaningful comparative analysis; however, it is worth noting that for Chinese females the proportion of robberies was relatively evenly distributed across the week—between 10 percent and 17 percent, with the exception of Wednesdays (24%) and Thursdays (7%).

Experience of other theft

Rate of other theft victimisation

The ABS was unable to provide age and gender breakdowns for other theft data from Recorded Crime Victims. As a result, the state averages presented for the category of other theft are provided to give some context against which the student rates of other theft may be considered; however, the two are not directly comparable and it is important to exercise caution when interpreting the results.

Between 2005 and 2009, the rate of other theft for all persons across Western Australia ranged from between 32 and 39 incidents per 1,000 of the population (see Table 65). The lowest was recorded in 2009; the highest was recorded in 2006.

Males

For male international students, the estimated other theft rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • twenty-nine and 39 incidents for male students from India;
  • twelve and 32 incidents for male students from the People's Republic of China;
  • thirteen and 28 incidents for male students from the Republic of Korea;
  • thirteen and 28 incidents for male students from Malaysia; and
  • eight and 19 incidents for male students from the United States.

The rate of other theft has generally declined for all countries over the 2005–09 period.

Examination of the relevant confidence intervals for each annual estimate reveals the following key conclusion:

  • The rate of other theft experienced by Indian male students was statistically higher in the most recent year compared with male students from Malaysia only.

Females

For female international students, the estimated other theft rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population was between:

  • eight and 28 incidents for female students from India;
  • sixteen and 28 incidents for female students from the People's Republic of China;
  • three and 21 incidents for female students from the Republic of Korea;
  • ten and 24 incidents for female students from Malaysia; and
  • zero and 24 incidents for female students from the United States.

 

Table 63: Time of day of robberies by gender and country, Western Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 7 23 2 9 0 0 0
4 am–8 am 3 10 3 13 0 1 7 0
8 am–noon 1 3 2 9 0 1 7 0
Noon–4 pm 1 3 1 4 0 0 0
4 pm–8 pm 4 13 3 13 1 17 2 14 0
8 pm–midnight 15 48 12 52 5 83 10 71 1 100
Total 31 23 6 14 1
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 0 1 3 0 0 0
4 am–8 am 0 0 0 2 33 0
8 am–noon 0 3 10 0 0 0
Noon–4 pm 0 1 3 0 1 17 0
4 pm–8 pm 1 100 5 17 1 100 3 50 0
8 pm–midnight 0 19 66 0 0 2 100
Total 1 29 1 6 2

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Table 64: Day of week of robberies by gender and country, Western Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 2 6 6 26 1 17 2 14 1 100
Monday 5 16 1 4 1 17 1 7 0
Tuesday 3 10 8 35 1 17 3 21 0
Wednesday 7 23 0 0 1 7 0
Thursday 1 3 2 9 1 17 5 36 0
Friday 2 6 2 9 1 17 1 7 0
Saturday 11 35 4 17 1 17 1 7 0
Total 31 23 6 14 1
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 1 100 3 10 0 1 17 0
Monday 0 5 17 0 1 17 0
Tuesday 0 5 17 0 0 0
Wednesday 0 7 24 0 2 33 2 100
Thursday 0 2 7 0 0 0
Friday 0 4 14 0 1 17 0
Saturday 0 3 10 1 100 1 17 0
Total 1 29 1 6 2

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Table 65: Rate of theft by gender and country, Western Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesWA population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 7 39.4^ 6 11.5^ 4 27.5^^ 15 28.1^ 0 37.8
(14.4–85.7) (4.2–25.0) (3.3–99.2) (15.7–46.3) (37.5–38.1)
2006 15 34.9^ 35 28.9 6 13.1^ 33 28.3 7 19.0^ 39.4
(19.1–58.5) (20.1–40.1) (3.6–33.4) (19.6–39.5) (5.2–48.7) (39.1–39.6)
2007 26 31.1 48 32.0 7 25.5^ 36 26.6 5 16.5^ 37.5
(20.3–45.5) (23.7–42.3) (12.2–46.8) (18.8–36.5) (4.5–42.3) (37.3–37.8)
2008 51 28.8 52 27.8 8 23.3^ 31 18.9 2 8.0^^ 38.2
(21.4–37.8) (20.8–36.5) (10.7–44.2) (12.8–27.0) (1.0–29.0) (37.9–38.5)
2009 91 29.4 52 22.0 8 15.2^ 20 13.1 3 12.6^^ 32.3
(23.7–36.2) (16.5–28.8) (4.9–35.5) (8.3–19.7) (2.6–36.8) (32.1–32.6)
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesWA population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 1 28.0^^ 15 28.1^ 1 16.3^^ 12 21.7^ 1 0.0^^ 37.8
(0.7–155.9) (15.4–47.2) (0.4–90.8) (10.8–38.8) (0.0–133.9) (37.5–38.1)
2006 1 9.1^^ 19 15.6 6 19.8^ 26 23.1 6 19.7^ 39.4
(0.2–50.7) (9.3–24.7) (7.3–43.1) (15.4–33.4) (7.9–40.6) (39.1–39.6)
2007 5 21.4^ 32 22.6 6 15.4^ 34 23.6 11 24.1^ 37.5
(7.0–50.0) (15.5–31.9) (5.6–33.5) (16.4–33.0) (11.6–44.3) (37.3–37.8)
2008 4 8.5^^ 36 20.9 8 20.7^ 27 15.0 4 9.3^^ 38.2
(2.3–21.7) (14.7–28.8) (8.9–40.7) (9.7–22.1) (2.5–23.9) (37.9–38.5)
2009 13 8.2^ 50 23.3 2 3.3^^ 17 10.1 2 5.2^^ 32.3
(3.5–16.2) (17.3–30.6) (0.1–18.3) (6.0–16.0) (0.6–18.8) (32.1–32.6)

^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 25% should be interpreted with caution

^^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 50% should be interpreted with extreme caution

(n–n) The numbers in parentheses beneath the point estimates (rates) indicate the lower and upper band confidence intervals

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]