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Tasmania

The Tasmanian student sample

The calculation of victimisation rates along international students in Tasmania is complicated by small numbers and in all cases (for assault) the number of records was statistically unreliable. As a result, the findings presented in this section are descriptive only, as a comparative analysis will be neither accurate nor meaningful.

Between 2005 and 2009 inclusive, 9,874 international students from five source countries were identified as having commenced study at an institution or course located in Tasmania (see Table 66). This included students who commenced study prior to 2005, but were known to be continuing their studies in Tasmania in 2005. Overall, Tasmania accounted for one percent of all international students studying in Australia between 2005 and 2009.

The vast majority of students studying in Tasmania were from the People's Republic of China (n=4,603; 47%), followed by Malaysia (n=3,467; 35%), India (n=766; 8%), the Republic of Korea (n=642; 7%) and the United States (n=396; 4%).

Over the five year period, the number of international students studying in Tasmania remained relatively stable. Following a substantial decline between 2005 and 2006, the number of students increased steadily to 2009.

Table 66: Annual student arrivals by gender and country, Tasmania, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTotal
2005 236 828 157 766 44 2,031
2006 57 352 46 314 45 814
2007 105 453 58 327 37 980
2008 131 502 62 369 39 1,103
2009 138 549 68 398 36 1,189
Total 667 2,684 391 2,174 201 6,117
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTotal
2005 6 188 19 146 7 366
2006 11 319 37 270 63 700
2007 18 401 55 277 50 801
2008 32 459 70 291 38 890
2009 32 552 70 309 37 1,000
Total 99 1,919 251 1,293 195 3,757
All students
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTotal
2005 242 1,016 176 912 51 2,397
2006 68 671 83 584 108 1,514
2007 123 854 113 604 87 1,781
2008 163 961 132 660 77 1,993
2009 170 1,101 138 707 73 2,189
Total 766 4,603 642 3,467 396 9,874

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Estimating the 'at-risk' student population

For the reasons described in the Methodology chapter, the calculation of victimisation rates required a reliable estimate of the 'at-risk' population in each year and for each of the five international student source countries; in this case, a summary estimate of the number of students who studied within Tasmania for the entire 365 days in each year. It is calculated as the sum of the number days all students were 'at risk' within the relevant year, divided by 365. These estimates were notionally larger than those presented above because students were not only counted in the year in which they arrive, but also counted in any subsequent years of study.

Overall, the distribution of 'at-risk' students is roughly equal with the distribution among student arrivals for all countries (see Figure 19).

Figure 19: Annual student arrivals and estimated annual at-risk population by country of birth, Tasmania (%)

Figure 19: Annual student arrivals and estimated annual at-risk population by country of birth, Tasmania (%)

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Finally, the last column presented in Table 67 provides comparative population estimates for the annualised Tasmania population aged between 15 and 44 years. These estimates are derived from the ABS population census projections and are used as the basis on which statewide victimisation rates are calculated (with the exception of the other theft category).

The international student groups arriving to study in Tasmania were not homogenous, varying significantly in both gender and age. In terms of gender, almost two-thirds of all students arriving in Tasmania were male (62%); however, males arrivals from India substantially outnumbered female arrivals over the five year period (87% vs 13%). Further, male students outnumbered females arriving from Malaysia (63% vs 37%), the Republic of Korea (61% vs 39%), the People's Republic of China (58% vs 42%) and the United States (51% vs 49%).

These patterns were also generally consistent for the calculated annual 'at-risk' populations, where in 2009 for example, male students from India made up 80 percent of the total Indian 'at-risk' population and male students from the People's Republic of China made up half of the Chinese 'at-risk' population. Across all countries the proportion of 'at-risk' females was slightly higher than the proportion of female arrivals.

In terms of age, the vast majority of all students were aged between 20 and 35 years. In 2009, this age group comprised 96 percent of 'at-risk' students from India, 88 percent of students from the People's Republic of China, 87 percent from the United States, 82 percent from Malaysia and 56 percent from the Republic of Korea. Younger students (those aged between 15 and 19 years) were disproportionally over-represented among those from the Republic of Korea (31%) when compared with the other student groups.

Even more telling is the joint age and gender distribution for each country in 2009, with as many as 42 percent of all 'at-risk' students from India and 37 percent of 'at-risk' students from Malaysia being males aged between 20 and 24 years (see Table 68). By contrast, the single age/gender combination with the highest proportional population of 'at-risk' Chinese and Korean students was females aged 20–24 years (29% and 65%, respectively). An equal proportion of male and female students aged between 20 and 24 years were most 'at-risk' within the United States student population.

Table 67: Estimated annual at-risk population by gender and country, Tasmania, 2005–09 (n)
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTasmania population
Total at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year persons
2005 6,501 18 41,768 114 4,834 13 40,585 111 3,497 10 n/a 95,190
2006 17,728 49 119,929 329 15,280 42 101,689 279 13,052 36 n/a 95,180
2007 31,281 86 163,885 449 19,456 53 113,253 310 11,216 31 n/a 94,927
2008 44,586 122 183,247 502 22,607 62 125,343 343 11,472 31 n/a 94,806
2009 46,108 126 203,531 558 26,152 72 138,839 380 12,332 34 n/a 94,763
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTasmania population
Total at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year persons
2005 1,341 4 34,149 94 3,055 8 37,392 102 1,824 5 n/a 96,230
2006 3,024 8 107,043 293 12,544 34 86,659 237 17,300 47 n/a 95,906
2007 5,776 16 141,154 387 18,445 51 94,394 259 14,849 41 n/a 95,567
2008 9,903 27 166,121 455 25,001 68 99,467 273 12,656 35 n/a 95,208
2009 11,388 31 200,788 550 27,225 75 105,950 290 13,087 36 n/a 94,890
All students
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTasmania population
Total at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year persons
2005 7,842 21 75,917 208 7,889 22 77,977 214 5,321 15 n/a 191,420
2006 20,752 57 226,972 622 27,824 76 188,348 516 30,352 83 n/a 191,086
2007 37,057 102 305,039 836 37,901 104 207,647 569 26,065 71 n/a 190,494
2008 54,489 149 349,368 957 47,608 130 224,810 616 24,128 66 n/a 190,014
2009 57,496 158 404,319 1,108 53,377 146 244,789 671 25,419 70 n/a 189,653

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Table 68: Age distribution of the annual at-risk population by gender and country, Tasmania, 2009a
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTasmanian population
Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%
15–19 yrs 1 1 61 11 23 34 69 18 1 4 17,473 18
20–24 yrs 66 52 316 57 19 28 250 66 24 71 16,232 17
25–34 yrs 57 45 174 31 18 27 57 15 7 20 29,101 31
35–44 yrs 2 2 5 1 7 10 2 1 2 5 31,957 34
Total 126 557 67 378 34 94,763
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTasmanian population
Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%
15–19 2 6 67 12 20 27 46 16 6 18 16,386 17
20–24 13 41 322 59 26 36 201 70 24 71 15,683 17
25–34 15 49 153 28 15 21 35 12 4 11 29,206 31
35–44 1 3 8 1 11 15 5 2 0 0 33,615 35
Total 31 550 72 287 34 94,890
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTasmanian population
Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%
15–19 3 2 128 12 43 31 115 17 8 11 33,859 18
20–24 79 50 638 58 45 32 451 68 48 71 31,915 17
25–34 72 46 328 30 34 24 93 14 11 16 58,307 31
35–44 3 2 13 1 18 13 7 1 2 2 65,572 35
Total 158 1107 140 666 68 189,653

a: Totals may include students aged outside of the specified age ranges and therefore may not sum

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Experience of assault

Rate of assault victimisation

Comparison of assault data presented in this chapter with that of any other jurisdiction is not advised. Assault data is not collected or recorded consistently between the jurisdictions, thus significantly limiting the reliability of cross-jurisdictional comparisons. It is for this reason that national comparisons are not provided in this report.

Between 2005 and 2009, the estimated rate of assault for males across Tasmania ranged from between 16 and 18 incidents per 1,000 of the population; the highest rate of assault occurred in 2007. For females, the rate of assault ranged between 12 and 15 incidents per 1,000 of the population.

Due to the small number of assaults recorded for males and females across the student groups, the findings in this section focus on male students from India and the People's Republic of China.

The rate of assault among both Indian and Chinese male students was lower than the average for similarly aged males across Tasmania from 2007 to 2009. This was only statistically significant for Chinese males between 2007 and 2009 (see Table 69).

The rate of assault was higher for male Indian students compared with students from China from 2007 to 2009, although this was only statistically significant in 2007.

Most assaults for both Indian and Chinese male students occurred on the street or in open spaces (67% vs 60%, respectively; see Table 70).

Examination of the temporal factors revealed that most assaults occurred between 8 pm and 4 am and on weekends (Friday, Saturday and Sunday; see Tables 71 and 72).

Table 69 Rate of assault by gender and country, Tasmania, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTasmanian population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 0 0 0 0 1 0.0 17.1
(0.0–429.9) (16.7–17.4)
2006 0 0 0 0 0 17.4
(17.1–17.8)
2007 3 46.7^^ 1 2.2^^ 0 0 0 18.1
(12.7–119.5) (0.1–12.4) (17.7–18.4)
2008 2 16.4^^ 1 2.0^^ 0 2 5.9^^ 2 66.0^^ 16.0
(2.0–59.1) (0.1–11.1) (0.7–21.2) (8.0–238.3) (15.7–16.4)
2009 1 7.9^^ 3 5.4^^ 1 14.9 0 0 16.9
(0.2–44.1) (1.1–15.7) (0.4–82.8) (16.5–17.2)
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTasmanian population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 0 0 0 0 0 11.5
(11.2–11.8)
2006 0 3 10.3^^ 0 0 0 13.6
(2.1–30.0) (13.2–13.9)
2007 0 0 0 0 0 14.4
(14.0–14.7)
2008 0 1 2.2^^ 0 0 1 30.7^^ 14.9
(0.1–12.3) (0.8–171.1) (14.6–15.2)
2009 0 2 1.8^^ 0 0 0 14.3
(0.0–10.1) (14.0–14.7)

^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 25% should be interpreted with caution

^^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 50% should be interpreted with extreme caution

(n–n) The numbers in parentheses beneath the point estimates (rates) indicate the lower and upper band confidence intervals

Note: Comparison of this data with that of any other jurisdiction is not advised. Assault data is not collected or recorded consistently between the jurisdictions, thus significantly limiting the reliability of cross-jurisdictional comparisons. It is for this reason that national comparisons are not provided in this report

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Location of assault

Table 70: Location of recorded assaults by gender and country, Tasmania, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 4 67 3 60 0 1 50 0
Residential 1 17 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Retail 0 2 40 0 1 50 2 67
Commercial—Hospitality/ entertainment 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Financial services 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Other 1 17 0 1 100 0 1 33
Public transport 0 0 0 0 0
Educational 0 0 0 0 0
Other 0 0 0 0 0
Total 6 5 1 2 3
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 0 1 25 0 0 0
Residential 0 3 75 0 0 1 100
Commercial—Retail 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Hospitality/ entertainment 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Financial services 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Other 0 0 0 0 0
Public transport 0 0 0 0 0
Educational 0 0 0 0 0
Other 0 0 0 0 0
Total 0 4 0 0 1

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Temporal pattern of assault

Table 71: Time of day of assaults by gender and country, Tasmania, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 3 50 0 1 100 1 50 2 67
4 am–8 am 1 17 2 40 0 0 0
8 am–noon 0 0 0 0 1 33
Noon–4 pm 0 0 0 0 0
4 pm–8 pm 0 0 0 0 0
8 pm–midnight 2 33 3 60 0 1 50 0
Total 6 5 1 2 3
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 0 0 0 0 0
4 am–8 am 0 0 0 0 0
8 am–noon 0 0 0 0 0
Noon–4 pm 0 0 1 100 0 0
4 pm–8 pm 0 2 50 0 0 0
8 pm–midnight 0 2 50 0 0 0
Total 0 4 1 0 0

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Table 72: Day of week of assaults by gender and country, Tasmania, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 3 50 0 1 100 1 50 0
Monday 1 17 1 20 0 0 0
Tuesday 1 17 1 20 0 0 0
Wednesday 1 17 0 0 0 0
Thursday 0 0 0 1 50 2 67
Friday 0 1 20 0 0 1 33
Saturday 0 2 40 0 0 0
Total 6 5 1 2 3
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 0 0 0 0 0
Monday 0 0 0 0 0
Tuesday 0 0 0 0 0
Wednesday 0 0 0 0 0
Thursday 0 1 25 0 0 0
Friday 0 2 50 0 0 0
Saturday 0 1 25 0 0 1 100
Total 0 4 0 0 1

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Experience of robbery

Rate of robbery victimisation

Between 2005 and 2009, the estimated rate of robbery for males across Tasmania ranged from between nine and 13 incidents per 1,000 of the population; the highest rate occurred in 2007. For females, the rate remained steady at three per 1,000 from 2005 to 2008, before declining to two per 1,000 in 2009.

Due to the small number of robberies recorded for males and females across the student groups, the findings in this section focus on male students from India and the People's Republic of China.

The rate of robbery among Chinese students was lower than the average for similarly aged males across Tasmania in each year (see Table 73). Robberies of Indian male students were only recorded in 2007 and 2008 and in both years, the rate of robbery per 1,000 Indian male students was higher, although not statistically significant, than the rate of robbery for both Chinese male students and similarly aged males in Tasmania. Most robberies for both Indian and Chinese male students occurred at residential locations (50% and 75%, respectively; see Table 74). Examination of the temporal factors revealed that most robberies occurred between 8 pm and 4 am and on weekends (Friday, Saturday and Sunday; see Tables 75 and 76).

Table 73: Rate of robbery by gender and country, Tasmania, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTasmanian population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 0 1 8.7^^ 0 0 0 11.2
(0.2–48.7) (11.0–11.6)
2006 0 2 6.1^^ 0 0 0 12.4
(0.7–22.0) (12.1–12.7)
2007 2 11.7^^ 2 4.5^^ 0 0 1 34.4^^ 12.6
(0.3–65.0) (0.5–16.1) (0.9–191.7) (12.2–12.9)
2008 2 16.4^^ 1 2.0^^ 0 0 0 10.8
(2.0–59.1) (0.1–11.1) (10.5–11.1)
2009 0 2 3.6^^ 1 0.0^^ 0 0 8.9
(0.4–13.0) (0.0–54.8) (8.6–9.2)
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTasmanian population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 0 1 0.0^^ 0 0 0 3.1
(0.0–39.7) (3.0–3.3)
2006 0 0 0 1 4.2^^ 0 3.4
(0.1–23.7) (3.2–3.5)
2007 0 1 0.0^^ 0 0 0 3.2
(0.0–9.6) (3.0–3.3)
2008 0 1 0.0^^ 0 0 0 3.0
(0.0–8.1) (2.9–3.2)
2009 1 64.1^^ 1 0.0^^ 0 0 0 2.4
(7.8–231.6) (0.0–6.7) (2.2–2.5)

^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 25% should be interpreted with caution

^^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 50% should be interpreted with extreme caution

(n–n) The numbers in parentheses beneath the point estimates (rates) indicate the lower and upper band confidence intervals

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Location of robbery

Table 74: Location of recorded robberies by gender and country, Tasmania, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 1 25 2 25 0 0 0
Residential 2 50 6 75 0 0 1 100
Commercial—Retail 1 25 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Hospitality/ entertainment 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Financial services 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Other 0 0 0 0 0
Public transport 0 0 0 0 0
Educational 0 0 0 0 0
Other 0 0 0 0 0
Total 4 8 0 0 1
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 0 0 0 0 0
Residential 0 4 100 0 1 100 0
Commercial—Retail 1 100 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Hospitality/ entertainment 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Financial services 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Other 0 0 0 0 0
Public transport 0 0 0 0 0
Educational 0 0 0 0 0
Other 0 0 0 0 0
Total 1 4 0 1 0

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Temporal pattern of robbery

Table 75: Time of day of robberies by gender and country, Tasmania, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 0 2 29 0 0 0
4 am–8 am 0 1 14 0 0 0
8 am–noon 0 1 14 0 0 0
Noon–4 pm 1 33 1 14 0 0 0
4 pm–8 pm 1 33 0 0 0 0
8 pm–midnight 1 33 2 29 0 0 0
Total 3 7 0 0 0
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 0 0 0 0 0
4 am–8 am 0 0 0 0 0
8 am–noon 0 1 25 1 100 0 0
Noon–4 pm 0 0 0 0 0
4 pm–8 pm 1 100 1 25 0 0 0
8 pm–midnight 0 2 50 0 0 0
Total 1 4 1 0 0

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Table 76: Day of week of robberies by gender and country, Tasmania, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 2 50 1 13 0 0 0
Monday 0 0 0 0 0
Tuesday 0 1 13 0 0 0
Wednesday 1 25 0 0 0 0
Thursday 0 1 13 0 0 0
Friday 0 3 38 0 0 1 100
Saturday 1 25 2 25 0 0 0
Total 4 8 0 0 1
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 1 100 1 25 0 0 0
Monday 0 0 0 1 100 0
Tuesday 0 1 25 0 0 0
Wednesday 0 0 0 0 0
Thursday 0 1 25 0 0 0
Friday 0 0 0 0 0
Saturday 0 1 25 0 0 0
Total 1 4 0 1 0

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Experience of other theft

Rate of other theft victimisation

The ABS was unable to provide age and gender breakdowns for other theft data from Recorded Crime Victims. As a result, the state averages presented for the category of other theft are provided to give some context against which the student rates of other theft may be considered; however, the two are not directly comparable and it is important to exercise caution when interpreting the results.

Between 2005 and 2009, the rate of other theft for all persons across Tasmania ranged from between 16 and 22 incidents per 1,000 of the population. The lowest was recorded in 2009; the highest was recorded in 2005.

Due to the small number of other theft offences recorded for males and females across the student groups, the findings in this section focus on male students from India and the People's Republic of China.

The rate of other theft among Indian male students was higher than that for Chinese males in 2006 and 2007, although not significant (see Table 77).

Table 77: Rate of theft by gender and country, Tasmania, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTasmanian population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 1 56.1^^ 0 0 2 9.0^^ 0 21.7
(1.4–312.8) (0.2–50.1) (21.3–22.2)
2006 2 41.2^^ 1 6.1^^ 0 2 7.2^^ 0 20.7
(5.0–148.7) (0.7–22.0) (0.9–26.1) (20.3–21.1)
2007 1 11.7^^ 3 8.9^^ 1 0.0^^ 0 0 18.4
(0.3–65.0) (2.4–22.8) (0.0–74.5) (18.1–18.8)
2008 0 1 2.0^^ 0 0 0 17.9
(0.1–11.1) (17.5–18.2)
2009 0 6 9.0^^ 0 2 5.3^^ 0 16.4
(2.9–20.9) (0.6–19.1) (16.0–16.7)
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTasmanian population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 0 0 0 0 0 21.7
(21.3–22.2)
2006 0 1 3.4^^ 0 0 0 20.7
(0.1–19.1) (20.3–21.1)
2007 0 2 5.2^^ 0 2 7.8^^ 0 18.4
(0.6–18.7) (0.9–28.1) (18.1–18.8)
2008 0 1 0.0^^ 1 31.0^^ 0 1 30.7^^ 17.9
(0.0–8.1) (3.8–112.0) (0.8–171.1) (17.5–18.2)
2009 0 1 1.8^^ 0 2 7.0^^ 0 16.4
(0.0–10.1) (0.8–25.1) (16.0–16.7)

^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 25% should be interpreted with caution

^^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 50% should be interpreted with extreme caution

(n–n) The numbers in parentheses beneath the point estimates (rates) indicate the lower and upper band confidence intervals

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]