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South Australia

The South Australian student sample

Between 2005 and 2009 inclusive, 25,549 international students from five source countries were identified as having commenced study at an institution or course located in South Australia (see Table 90). This includes students who commenced study prior to 2005, but were known to be continuing their studies in South Australia in 2005. Overall, South Australia accounted for seven percent of all international students studying in Australia between 2005 and 2009.

The vast majority of students studying in South Australia were from the People's Republic of China (n=12,316, 48%), followed by India (n=6,906, 27%), Malaysia (n=3,950, 15%), the Republic of Korea (n=1,462, 6%) and the United States (n=915, 4%).

Over the five year period, the number of international students studying in South Australia remained relatively stable.

Table 90: Annual student arrivals by gender and country, South Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTotal
2005 792 1,193 149 482 30 2,646
2006 778 1,122 169 342 112 2,523
2007 815 923 109 245 100 2,192
2008 1,289 1,149 99 294 90 2,921
2009 1,162 1,360 124 345 65 3,056
Total 4,836 5,747 650 1,708 397 13,338
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTotal
2005 123 1,322 181 576 17 2,219
2006 235 1,324 241 416 145 2,361
2007 321 1,083 150 400 128 2,082
2008 636 1,372 116 409 121 2,654
2009 755 1,468 124 441 107 2,895
Total 2,070 6,569 812 2,242 518 12,211
All students
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesTotal
2005 915 2,515 330 1,058 47 4,865
2006 1,013 2,446 410 758 257 4,884
2007 1,136 2,006 259 645 228 4,274
2008 1,925 2,521 215 703 211 5,575
2009 1,917 2,828 248 786 172 5,951
Total 6,906 12,316 1,462 3,950 915 25,549

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Estimating the 'at-risk' student population

For the reasons described in the Methodology section, the calculation of victimisation rates required a reliable estimate of the 'at-risk' population in each year and for each of the five international student source countries; in this case, a summary estimate of the number of students who studied within South Australia for the entire 365 days in each year. It is calculated as the sum of the number of days all students were 'at-risk' within the relevant year, divided by 365. These estimates were notionally larger than those presented above because students were not only counted in the year in which they arrive, but also counted in any subsequent years of study.

Overall, the distribution of 'at-risk' students is roughly equal with the distribution among student arrivals for all countries (see Figure 21).

Figure 21: Annual student arrivals and estimated annual at-risk population by country of birth, South Australia

Figure 21: Annual student arrivals and estimated annual at-risk population by country of birth, South Australia

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Finally, the last column presented in Table 91 provides comparative population estimates for the annualised South Australia population aged between 15 and 44 years. These estimates are derived from the ABS population census projections and are used as the basis for which statewide victimisation rates are calculated (with the exception of the other theft category).

The international student groups arriving to study in South Australia were not homogenous, varying significantly in both gender and age. In terms of gender, just over half of all students arriving in South Australia were male (52%); however, male arrivals from India substantially outnumbered female arrivals over the five year period (70% vs 30%). Conversely, female students typically outnumbered males arriving from the People's Republic of China (53% vs 47%), the Republic of Korea (56% vs 44%), Malaysia (57% vs 43%) and the United States (57% vs 43%).

These patterns were also generally consistent for the calculated annual 'at-risk' populations, where in 2009 for example, male students from India made up 69 percent of the total Indian 'at-risk' population. For the other countries, there were more 'at-risk' female students than male students in 2009.

In terms of age, the vast majority of all students were aged between 20 and 35 years. In 2009, this age group comprised 91 percent of 'at-risk' students from India, 76 percent of students from the People's Republic of China, 68 percent from the Republic of Korea, 79 percent from Malaysia and 86 percent from the United States. Younger students—those aged between 15 and 19 years—were disproportionally over-represented among those from the People's Republic of China (23%) and the Republic of Korea (21%) and Malaysia (19%), when compared with the United States (8%) and India (7%).

Even more telling is the joint age and gender distribution for each country in 2009, with as many as 38 percent of all 'at-risk' students from India being males aged between 20 and 24 years (see Table 92). In contrast, the single age/gender combination with the highest proportional population of 'at-risk' students was, for most other countries, females aged 20–24 years, with the exception being females aged 25 to 34 years for the Republic of Korea.

Finally, it is important to note the comparative differences in age and gender for each international student group when compared with the SA population. Specifically, 51 percent of the SA population aged between 15 and 44 years was male; 49 percent was female. Two-thirds of the population (combined and separate for male and female populations) were aged over 25 years; one-third was aged over 35 years. Only 16 percent of 15–44 year old population in South Australia was aged between 20 and 24 years—substantially lower than students from India (50%), the People's Republic of China (58%), Malaysia (69%) and the United States (56%).

Table 91: Estimated annual at risk population by gender and country, South Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesSA population
Total at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year persons
2005 198,978 545 240,583 659 34,187 94 127,827 350 7,298 20 n/a 318,712
2006 435,684 1,194 656,718 1,799 93,373 256 260,612 714 33,727 92 n/a 316,795
2007 564,191 1,546 896,629 2,457 115,542 317 278,097 762 43,767 120 n/a 315,249
2008 729,185 1,998 1,084,026 2,970 129,827 356 294,236 806 37,220 102 n/a 313,554
2009 1,000,948 2,742 1,324,454 3,629 135,648 372 337,898 926 31,819 87 n/a 312,078
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesSA population
Total at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year persons
2005 26,391 72 275,864 756 39,148 107 153,897 422 4,476 12 n/a 307,729
2006 85,867 235 735,334 2,015 119,554 328 322,504 884 36,745 101 n/a 305,578
2007 142,980 392 958,942 2,627 149,846 411 384,101 1,052 47,264 129 n/a 303,942
2008 233,405 639 1,182,179 3,239 162,046 444 416,638 1,141 426,88 117 n/a 302,305
2009 453,299 1,242 1,434,219 3,929 159,100 436 465,997 1,277 38,720 106 n/a 300,631
All students
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesSA population
Total at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year personsTotal at-risk daysTotal full-year persons
2005 225,369 617 516,447 1,415 73,335 201 281,724 772 11,774 32 n/a 626,441
2006 521,551 1,429 1,392,052 3,814 212,927 583 583,116 1,598 70,472 193 n/a 622,373
2007 707,171 1,937 1,855,571 5,084 265,388 727 662,198 1,814 91,031 249 n/a 619,191
2008 962,590 2,637 2,266,205 6,209 291,873 800 710,874 1,948 79,908 219 n/a 615,859
2009 1,454,247 3,984 2,758,673 7,558 294,748 808 803,895 2,202 70,539 193 n/a 612,709

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Table 92: Age distribution of the annual at-risk population by gender and country, South Australia, 2009a
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesSA population
Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%
15–19 219 8 872 24 72 24 188 20 2 2 52,119 17
20–24 1,521 56 2,122 59 81 27 620 67 49 57 52,226 17
25–34 963 35 611 17 124 41 99 11 27 32 99,677 32
35–44 36 1 16 0 24 8 18 2 8 9 108,056 35
Total 2,739 3,620 301 925 86 312,078
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesSA population
Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%
15–19 66 5 862 22 77 20 218 17 13 13 49,771 17
20–24 465 38 2,250 57 123 31 888 70 56 55 48,782 16
25–34 647 52 731 19 146 37 129 10 31 30 94,704 32
35–44 57 5 78 2 46 12 30 2 2 2 107,347 36
Total 1,235 3,921 392 1,265 103 300,604
All students
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesSA population
Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%Total full-year persons (n)%
15–19 286 7 1,734 23 149 21 406 19 15 8 101,890 17
20–24 1,985 50 4,372 58 204 29 1,508 69 105 56 101,008 16
25–34 1,610 41 1,342 18 270 39 228 10 58 31 194,381 32
35–44 92 2 94 1 70 10 47 2 10 5 215,403 35
Total 3,973 7,542 693 2,190 189 612,682

a: Totals may include students aged outside of the specified age ranges and therefore may not sum

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Experience of assault

Rate of assault victimisation

Comparison of assault data presented in this chapter with that of any other jurisdiction is not advised. Assault data is not collected or recorded consistently between the jurisdictions, thus significantly limiting the reliability of cross-jurisdictional comparisons. It is for this reason that national comparisons are not provided in this report.

Males

Between 2005 and 2009, the estimated (weighted) rate of assault for males across South Australia ranged from between 25 and 30 incidents per 1,000 of the population. The lowest rate of assault occurred in 2005; the highest rate occurred in 2007. Due to the small number of incidents recorded among students from the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and the United States, the following section focuses on the findings for students from India and the People's Republic of China (see Table 93).

For male international students, the estimated assault rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • seven and 28 incidents for male students from India; and
  • three and seven incidents for male students from the People's Republic of China (see Table 93).

Examination of the relevant confidence intervals for each annual estimate reveals the following key conclusions:

  • The rate of assault among the international student groups (both India and China) was lower than the average for similarly aged males across South Australia.
  • The rate of assault among male Indian students was higher in 2007, 2008 and 2009 when compared with students from the People's Republic of China.

Females

Females across South Australia experienced an estimated (weighted) rate of assault of between 23 and 25 incidents per 1,000 of the population. Due to the small number of incidents recorded among students from the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and the United States, the following section focuses on the findings for students from India and the People's Republic of China. Nevertheless, very few incidents of assault were recorded for female international students. The estimated assault rate per 1000 of the 'at-risk' population of female students was low across the five countries examined.

As was the case for male students, examination of the confidence intervals indicate that the rate of assault victimisation among female international students was lower than the average for similarly aged females across South Australia. Further, the confidence intervals indicate no statistical difference between the different counties.

Table 93: Rate of assault by gender and country, South Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesSA population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 5 7.4 ^^ 0 1 12.9 ^^ 1 2.9 ^^ 0 25.2
(2.0–18.9) (0.3–72.0) (0.1–16.1) (24.6–25.7)
2006 12 10.9^ 13 6.7^ 1 4.3^^ 0 0 27.5
(5.8–18.7) (3.4–11.7) (0.1–23.9) (27.0–28.1)
2007 20 14.9 11 4.1^ 4 14.0^^ 3 5.3^^ 0 28.4
(9.4–22.3) (2.0–7.5) (3.8–35.9) (1.4–13.6) (27.8–29.0)
2008 61 27.6 8 3.0^ 0 2 2.5^^ 1 10.0^^ 30.1
(20.8–35.9) (1.4–5.8) (0.3–9.0) (0.3–55.5) (29.5–30.7)
2009 75 23.0 14 3.9^ 2 3.3^^ 0 0 29.1
(17.7–29.4) (2.1–6.5) (0.1–18.5) (28.5–29.7)
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesSA population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 0 0 0 0 0 23.3
(22.7–23.8)
2006 0 2 1.5^^ 0 0 0 22.6
(0.3–4.4) (22.1–23.2)
2007 0 8 2.3^ 0 0 0 24.5
(0.8–5.0) (23.9–25.1)
2008 3 3.2^^ 5 1.2^ 0 1 1.8^^ 0 24.7
(0.4–11.5) (0.3–3.2) (0.2–6.4) (24.2–25.3)
2009 7 6.5^ 7 1.8^ 1 0.0^^ 0 0 24.5
(2.8–12.8) (0.7–3.7) (0.0–9.4) (23.9–25.1)

^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 25% should be interpreted with caution

^^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 50% should be interpreted with extreme caution

(n–n) The numbers in parentheses beneath the point estimates (rates) indicate the lower and upper band confidence intervals

Note: Comparison of this data with that of any other jurisdiction is not advised. Assault data is not collected or recorded consistently between the jurisdictions, thus significantly limiting the reliability of cross-jurisdictional comparisons. It is for this reason that national comparisons are not provided in this report

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Location of assault

The most common location recoded for assaults committed against male international students in South Australia was on the street or in open spaces (62%). Street or open space was recorded for 63 percent of assaults against male Indian students and 56 percent for male students from the People's Republic of China (see Table 94).

The second most frequently recorded location for assaults against male students was at residential locations (12%), followed by public transport facilities—including taxis and taxi ranks. This was largely driven by the proportion of assaults against Indian (12%) and Chinese males (10%), on or near public transport.

For the reasons already mentioned, the number of recorded assaults against females in South Australia is too small to conduct reliable comparative analysis, although at an aggregate level, 20 of the 32 recorded assaults occurred at residential locations (62%), followed by nine on the street or in open spaces (28%).

Table 94: Location of recorded assaults by gender and country, South Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 96 63 23 56 6 75 4 67 1 100
Residential 16 10 8 20 1 13 0 0
Commercial—Retail 14 9 2 5 0 0 0
Commercial—Hospitality/entertainment 5 3 2 5 1 13 2 33 0
Commercial—Financial services 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Other 1 1 0 0 0 0
Public transport 18 12 4 10 0 0 0
Educational 2 1 2 5 0 0 0
Other 1 1 0 0 0 0
Total 153 41 8 6 1
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 1 10 7 35 0 1 100 0
Residential 9 90 10 50 1 100 0 0
Commercial—Retail 0 1 5 0 0 0
Commercial—Hospitality/ entertainment 0 1 5 0 0 0
Commercial—Financial services 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial—Other 0 0 0 0 0
Public transport 0 0 0 0 0
Educational 0 1 5 0 0 0
Other 0 0 0 0 0
Total 10 20 1 1 0

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Temporal pattern of assault

The majority of assaults against male international students occurred between the hours of 8 pm and 4 am, though some differences were identified between the five countries (see Table 95). Those most likely to be assaulted during these hours were male students from India (62%), followed by the People's Republic of China (59%).

Daytime assaults (between 8 am and 4 pm) were relatively infrequent among all male student groups.

Although small in number, assaults against female international students in South Australia were more often recorded as having occurred in the evening (between 8 pm and midnight).

Analysis by the day of the week on which assaults were recorded showed no remarkable findings between students from different countries (see Table 96). The weekend period (Friday, Saturday and Sunday) typically accounted for the majority of assaults against male students from India (56%) and the People's Republic of China (45%).

Table 95: Time of day of assaults by gender and country, South Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 51 34 8 20 0 1 17 1 100
4 am–8 am 25 16 3 7 2 25 1 17 0
8 am–noon 4 3 1 2 1 13 0 0
Noon–4 pm 13 9 3 7 2 25 0 0
4 am–8 pm 16 11 10 24 1 13 1 0
8 pm–midnight 43 28 16 39 2 25 3 50 0
Total 152 41 8 6 1
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 1 10 2 10 0 0 0
4 am–8 am 0 0 0 0 0
8 am–Noon 3 30 0 0 0 0
Noon–4 pm 4 40 3 15 1 100 0 0
4 pm–8 pm 0 6 30 0 0 0
8 pm–Midnight 2 20 9 45 0 1 100 0
Total 10 20 1 1 0

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Table 96: Day of week of assaults by gender and country, South Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 24 16 6 15 3 38 3 33 1 100
Monday 21 14 6 15 1 13 2 22 0
Tuesday 10 7 7 17 0 0 0
Wednesday 14 9 5 12 0 0 0
Thursday 22 14 5 12 0 0 0
Friday 28 18 6 15 4 50 4 44 0
Saturday 34 22 6 15 0 0 0
Total 153 41 8 9 1
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 3 30 1 5 0 1 100 0
Monday 3 30 0 0 0 0
Tuesday 0 8 40 0 0 0
Wednesday 1 10 1 5 0 0 0
Thursday 1 10 3 15 0 0 0
Friday 1 10 1 5 0 0 0
Saturday 1 10 6 30 1 100 0 0
Total 10 20 1 1 0

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Occupation of victims of assault

In addition to the location of the offence, SA Police also provided information regarding the police-recorded occupation status of international student assault victims (see Table 97). For all countries except India and China, the number of recorded assaults was too small to justify comparative analysis. Nevertheless, of the data that is available for analysis, one notable finding did emerge. While for Chinese male students, the occupation for 51 percent of assault victims was recorded by the police as 'student', whereas for Indian students this was the case for only 16 percent of assault victims. Instead, a much larger proportion (n=68, 44%) of Indian student victims were recorded as 'taxi drivers'. This was substantially higher than for any other student group and indicates that a sizable proportion of assaults against Indian students were likely to have occurred during the course of their employment in the taxi industry.

Table 97: Occupation of victims of assault by gender and country, South Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Driver 1 1 0 0 0 0
Driver (taxi) 68 44 3 7 0 0 0
Retail 2 1 1 2 0 0 0
Security 4 3 1 2 0 0 0
Service station attendant 1 1 0 0 0 0
Student (school/ uni/tafe) 25 16 21 51 1 12.5 4 67 1 100
Unemployed 1 1 0 1 12.5 0 0
Waiter 1 1 0 0 0 0
Other 12 8 3 7 1 12.5 0 0
Unknown 38 25 12 29 5 62.5 2 33 0
Total 153 41 8 6 1
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Driver (taxi) 1 10 0 0 0 0
Retail 0 1 5 0 0 0
Student 4 40 14 70 1 100 1 100 0
Unknown 5 50 5 25 0 0 0
Total 10 20 1 1 0

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Experience of robbery

Rate of robbery victimisation

Males

Between 2005 and 2009, the estimated (weighted) rate of robbery for males across South Australia ranged from between two and three incidents per 1,000 of the population (see Table 98). Given the small number of incidents recorded among students from the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and the United States, the following section focuses on findings for students from India and the People's Republic of China only.

For male international students, the estimated assault rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • four and 15 incidents for male students from India; and
  • 0.3 and four incidents for male students from the People's Republic of China.

Examination of the relevant confidence intervals for each annual estimate reveals the rate of robbery experienced by Indian male students in 2008 and 2009 was statistically higher than estimated for the SA population in those years.

Females

Very few incidents of robbery were recorded for female students. There was no statistical difference between the rate of robbery for female students and females across South Australia on average.

Table 98: Rate of robbery by gender and country, South Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesSA population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 2 3.7^^ 1 1.5^^ 0 0 0 2.4
(0.4–13.3) (0.0–8.5) (2.2–2.6)
2006 12 15.1^ 3 1.7^^ 0 0 0 2.6
(9.0–23.9) (0.3–4.9) (2.4–2.8)
2007 5 4.5^ 8 3.3^ 2 3.5^^ 0 0 2.5
(1.8–9.3) (1.4–6.4) (0.1–19.5) (2.3–2.7)
2008 9 5.5^ 1 0.3^^ 0 0 0 2.3
(2.8–9.9) (0.0–1.9) (2.1–2.5)
2009 21 7.3 14 4.1^ 0 3 3.2^^ 0 3.0
(4.5–11.3) (2.3–6.8) (0.7–9.5) (2.9–3.2)
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesSA population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 0 2 0.0^^ 0 0 0 0.9
(0.0–4.9) (0.8–1.0)
2006 0 2 0.0^^ 0 0 0 0.8
(0.0–1.8) (0.7–0.9)
2007 0 3 0.8^^ 0 0 0 0.9
(0.1–2.8) (0.8–1.0)
2008 0 4 0.3^^ 0 0 0 1.0
(0.0–1.7) (0.8–1.1)
2009 2 1.6^^ 5 0.5^ 0 3 1.6^^ 0 0.8
(0.20–5.9) (0.1–1.8) (0.2–5.7) (0.7–0.89)

^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 25% should be interpreted with caution

^^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 50% should be interpreted with extreme caution

(n–n) The numbers in parentheses beneath the point estimates (rates) indicate the lower and upper band confidence intervals

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Location of robbery

The most common location for robberies of male international students in South Australia was on the street or in open spaces (78%; see Table 99). Street or open space was recorded for 76 percent of robberies among male Indian students and 78 percent for male students from the People's Republic of China.

The second most frequently recorded location for robberies against male students was on or near public transport facilities—including taxis and taxi ranks. This was largely driven by a comparatively higher proportion of robberies experienced by Indian males at these locations (16%).

The number of recorded robberies against females in South Australia is relatively small and so comparative analysis is limited. However, it is worthwhile noting that female students were also most likely to experience robberies on the street or in open spaces (76%).

Table 99: Location of recorded robberies by gender and country, South Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Street/open space 37 76 21 78 2 100 3 100 0
Residential 2 4 3 11 0 0 0
Commercial–Retail 2 4 0 0 0 0
Commercial–Hospitality/ entertainment 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial–Financial services 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial–Other 0 0 0 0 0
Public transport 8 16 2 7 0 0 0
Educational 0 0 0 0 0
Other 0 1 4 0 0 0
Total 49 27 2 3 0
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Street/ open space 1 50 14 88 0 1 33 0
Residential 0 1 6 0 0 0
Commercial–Retail 0 1 6 0 0 0
Commercial–Hospitality/ entertainment 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial–Financial services 0 0 0 0 0
Commercial–Other 0 0 0 0 0
Public transport 0 0 0 2 67 0
Educational 0 0 0 0 0
Other 1 50 0 0 0 0
Total 2 16 0 3 0

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Temporal pattern of robbery

The majority of robberies in South Australia against Chinese and Indian male international students occurred between the hours of 8 pm and 4 am (55% and 71%, respectively; see Table 100).

Robberies of female students from the People's Republic of China were most often recorded as having occurred during the evening (between 8 pm to 4 am).

Analysis by the day of the week on which robberies were recorded showed no notable findings between countries or by gender (see Table 101). Most robberies for both Indian and Chinese male students occurred on the weekend (60% and 41%, respectively), although for Chinese male students the distribution of robbery across the week was more even, ranging from between 11 and 15 percent on each day (with the exception of Tuesday and Wednesday). For Indian male students, robbery victimisation appeared to be more concentrated on weekends (including on Friday).

Table 100: Time of day of robberies by gender and country, South Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 12 24 2 7 0 0 0
4 am–8 am 5 10 1 4 0 0 0
8 am–noon 2 4 2 7 0 1 33 0
Noon–4 pm 4 8 2 7 0 0 0
4 pm–8 pm 3 6 7 26 0 1 33 0
8 pm–midnight 23 47 13 48 2 100 1 33 0
Total 49 27 2 3 0
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Midnight–4 am 0 2 13 0 0 0 0
4 am–8 am 0 0 0 0 0 0
8 am–noon 0 1 6 0 2 67 0
Noon–4 pm 0 1 6 0 1 33 0
4 pm–8 pm 2 100 5 31 0 0 0 0
8 pm–midnight 0 7 44 0 0 0 0
Total 2 16 0 3 0

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Table 101: Day of week of robberies by gender and country, South Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 11 22 4 15 1 50 0 0
Monday 5 10 4 15 1 50 0 0
Tuesday 5 10 6 22 0 0 0
Wednesday 9 18 2 7 0 2 67 0
Thursday 0 4 15 0 0 0
Friday 8 16 3 11 0 0 0
Saturday 11 22 4 15 0 1 33 0
Total 49 27 2 3 0
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Sunday 0 0 1 33 0 0
Monday 0 4 25 0 0 0
Tuesday 0 3 19 0 0 0
Wednesday 0 4 25 0 0 0
Thursday 0 2 13 0 0 0
Friday 0 2 13 2 67 0 0
Saturday 2 100 1 6 0 0 0
Total 2 16 3 0 0

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Occupation of victims of robbery

As indicated earlier, SA Police also provided information regarding the police-recorded occupation status of international student robbery victims (see Table 102). These categories were diverse, ranging from a cook or kitchen hand to fruit picker and retail assistant. As such, the numbers were generally too small for meaningful comparative analysis between each of the five countries; however, one notable finding did emerge. While for Chinese male students, the occupation for 67 percent of robbery victims was recorded by the police as 'student', whereas for Indian students this was the case for only 29 percent of robbery victims. Instead, a much larger proportion (n=13; 27%) of Indian student victims were recorded as 'taxi drivers'. This was substantially higher than for any other student group and indicates that a sizable proportion of robberies against Indian students were likely to have occurred during the course of their employment in the taxi industry.

Table 102: Occupation of victims of robbery by gender and country, South Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Cook 1 2 0 0 0 0
Driver (taxi) 13 27 0 0 0 0
Farm hand/fruit picker 1 2 0 0 0 0
Home duties 0 1 4 0 0 0
Kitchen hand 0 1 4 0 0 0
Retail 3 6 0 0 0 0
Service station attendant 1 2 0 0 0 0
Student (school/uni/tafe) 14 29 18 67 1 50 3 100 0
Other 3 6 1 4 0 0 0
Unknown 13 27 6 22 1 50 0 0
Total 49 27 2 3 0
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Student (school/uni/tafe) 1 50 12 75 0 2 66 0
Unknown 1 50 4 25 0 1 33 0
Total 2 16 0 3 0

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Experience of other theft

Rate of other theft victimisation

The ABS was unable to provide age and gender breakdowns for other theft data from their Recorded Crime Victims collection. As a result, the unweighted state averages for other theft are provided to give some context against which the student rates of other theft may be considered; however, the two are not directly comparable and it is important to exercise caution when interpreting the results. Further, it is important to note that failure to pay offences are included in the SA data, whereas in some other jurisdictions these offences are classified as fraud and therefore not included in the other theft category.

Due to the small number of incidents recorded among students from the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and the United States, the following section focuses on the findings for students from India and the People's Republic of China.

Between 2005 and 2009, the rate of other theft for all persons (male and female combined) across South Australia ranged from between 27 and 32 incidents per 1,000 of the population (see Table 103).

Males

For male international students, the estimated other theft rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' student population ranged from between:

  • Twenty-four and 40 incidents for male students from India; and
  • Thirteen and 21 incidents for male students from the People's Republic of China.

Examination of the relevant confidence intervals for each annual estimate revealed no significant differences in the rate of other theft for Indian and Chinese male students with two exceptions. In 2008 and 2009, Indian male students were the victims of other theft at a rate higher than the population average. Again, these differences should be interpreted with caution since the state average rates are not able to be weighted for age or gender differences which have been previously shown in this report to be important factors which influence rates of victimisation. Moreover, as analysis later in this section will show, a sizable proportion of thefts recorded against Indian students were 'fail to pay taxi' offences and were likely to have occurred during the course of their employment in the taxi industry.

Females

For female international students, the estimated other theft rate per 1,000 of the 'at-risk' population ranged from between:

  • four and14 incidents for female students from India; and
  • six and 16 incidents for female students from the People's Republic of China.

In many cases, the rate of theft experienced by female international students was statistically lower than the state average in South Australia. In all other cases, female students were statistically equal to the state average, although again, these comparisons should be made with caution since the state averages are unable to be appropriately weighted by age and gender.

Table 103: Rate of theft by gender and country, South Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesSA population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 15 24.0^ 8 13.7^ 2 12.9^^ 3 5.8^^ 0 31.3
(12.8–41.0) (6.3–26.0) (0.3–72.0) (0.7–20.8) (31.0–31.6)
2006 46 37.8 26 16.1 2 4.3^^ 4 12.7^^ 2 22.1^^ 32.1
(27.5–50.5) (10.8–23.2) (0.1–23.9) (5.8–24.2) (2.7–79.7) (31.9–32.4)
2007 41 29.1 48 20.8 4 14.0^^ 3 2.6^^ 1 8.4^^ 30.4
(21.3–39.0) (15.5–27.3) (3.8–35.9) (0.3–9.6) (0.2–46.9) (30.1–30.6)
2008 80 38.6 36 13.2 1 3.3^^ 5 6.2^ 2 10.0^^ 28.6
(30.4–48.2) (9.4–18.0) (0.1–18.2) (2.0–14.5) (0.3–55.5) (28.3–28.9)
2009 115 40.2 49 14.6 0 8 7.6^ 0 26.9
(33.0–48.4) (11.0–19.1) (3.0–15.6) (26.7–27.2)
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited StatesSA population average
nRatenRatenRatenRatenRateRate
2005 0 11 15.9^ 1 9.9^^ 1 0.0^^ 0 31.3
(8.2–27.8) (0.2–55.0) (0.0–8.8) (31.0–31.6)
2006 1 4.3 ^^ 16 6.0^ 1 0.0^^ 4 3.4^^ 2 20.4^^ 32.1
(0.1–23.8) (3.1–10.4) (0.0–12.0) (0.7–10.0) (2.5–73.7) (31.9–32.4)
2007 3 7.8^^ 35 11.4 1 2.7^^ 7 6.7^ 1 0.0^^ 30.4
(1.6–22.9) (7.7–16.3) (0.1–14.8) (2.7–13.8) (0.0–29.2) (30.1–30.6)
2008 9 14.3^ 34 7.7 3 4.9^^ 4 2.6^^ 0 28.6
(6.5–27.2) (5.0–11.4) (0.6–17.6) (0.5–7.7) (28.3–28.9)
2009 13 10.5^ 43 9.7 5 7.7^ 8 8.7^ 0 26.9
(5.6–18.0) (6.9–13.3) (1.6–22.4) (4.3–15.6) (26.7–27.2)

^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 25% should be interpreted with caution

^^Estimates with a relative standard error of greater than 50% should be interpreted with extreme caution

(n–n) The numbers in parentheses beneath the point estimates (rates) indicate the lower and upper band confidence intervals

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]

Occupation of victims

As indicted earlier, SA Police also provided information regarding the police-recorded occupation status of international student victims, including victims of theft (see Table 104). For all countries except India and China, the number of recorded thefts was too small to justify comparative analysis. Nevertheless, of the data that is available for analysis, it is pertinent to note that in 115 incidents of other theft involving an Indian international student the occupation status was recorded as 'driver' (110 of which were specifically recorded as 'taxi driver'). These incidents comprise 43 percent of all thefts recorded against Indian students in the 2005 to 2009 period—many of which are incidents of failure to pay a taxi fare. For Chinese students on the other hand, most victims of theft were recorded by the police as 'students' (n=88; 55%), with only a small number recorded as taxi drivers (n=6; 4%).

Overall, the occupation data lend support to the conclusion that the over-representation of Indian international students in some categories of victimisation can be explained by their involvement in certain types of employment industries/sectors, which place them at greater risk of victimisation irrespective of their race or identification as an Indian student. In the case of other theft, for example, the removal of 'fail to pay taxi' offences from the calculation of the theft rate sees a significant fall in the estimated rate of victimisation (23.0 per 1,000 in 2009, down from 40.3 per 1,000), bringing Indian students back in line with other students and below or at least on par with unweighted state averages.

Table 104: Occupation of victims of thefts by gender and country, South Australia, 2005–09
Males
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Cleaner 1 0 0 0 0 0
Clerk (non-govt) 0 1 1 0 0 0
Driver 5 2 0 0 0 0
Driver (taxi) 110 43 6 4 0 0 0
Farm hand/fruit picker 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
Hairdresser 0 1 1 0 0 0
Meat worker 0 1 1 0 0 0
Security guard 2 1 0 0 0 0
Service station attendant 1 0 0 0 0 0
Shop assistant 1 0 0 0 0 0
Student (school/uni/tafe) 48 19 88 55 4 44 10 67 2 67
Unemployed 0 1 1 0 0 0
Other 10 4 2 1 0 0 0
Unknown 77 30 58 36 5 56 5 33 1 33
Total 256 159 9 15 3
Females
IndiaChinaKoreaMalaysiaUnited States
n%n%n%n%n%
Driver (taxi) 0 2 2 0 0 0
Farm hand/fruit picker 0 1 1 0 0 0
Kitchen hand 1 4 0 0 0 0
Manager 0 1 1 0 0 0
Nurse 0 2 2 0 0 0
Social worker 1 4 0 0 0 0
Student (school/uni/tafe) 9 35 70 53 7 58 13 65 2 67
Teacher 1 4 1 1 0 0 0
Waitress/waiter 1 4 0 0 0 0
Other 1 4 6 5 0 0 0
Unknown 12 46 50 38 5 42 7 35 1 33
Total 26 133 12 20 3

Note: Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC, International Student Victims of Crime 2010 [computer file]