Australian Institute of Criminology

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The authors would like to thank anonymous reviewers from the Australian Institute of Criminology for their insightful comments on earlier drafts of this report.

About the authors

Zhivan Alach was Policing Development Manager at Auckland Metropolitan Crime and Operation Support (AMCOS), New Zealand Police. He holds a PhD in Political Studies from the University of Auckland and has published widely on a range of military, security and policing topics.

Charl Crous is Superintendent State Intelligence Division, Western Australian Police. He holds a DPP from Charles Sturt University and has published articles on police intelligence and the management of Covert Human Intelligence Sources.