Australian Institute of Criminology

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Working girls : prostitutes, their life and social control

Appendix I : Questionnaire

  1. Demographic questions
  2. Family and childhood relationships
  3. Present relationships
  4. Sexual experiences
  5. Work related experiences
  6. Client descriptions
  7. Legal history
  8. Drug history
  9. Sexual health history
  10. Future in prostitution

1. Demographic questions

1.1 Which age group do you belong to?

  1. Under l6
  2. 16 or 17
  3. 18 to 20
  4. 21 to 25
  5. 26 to 30
  6. 31 to 35
  7. 36 to 40
  8. Over 40

1.2 What educational level have you reached?

  1. Under School Cert.
  2. Attained School Cert.
  3. Higher School Cert.
  4. Matriculation for university entry
  5. Diploma or trade certificate
  6. University degree

1.3 What is/was your father's occupation?

  1. Managing director
  2. Executive/Administrator
  3. Professional
  4. Office clerk
  5. Self-employed / small business
  6. Skilled labourer
  7. Farmer
  8. Transport driver
  9. Unskilled labourer
  10. Unemployed/Pensioner
  11. Other

1.4 Which religion(s) do/did your parents belong to?

  1. Church of England
  2. Catholic
  3. Other Christian
  4. Jewish
  5. Moslem
  6. Buddhist
  7. Hindu
  8. Other

1.5 Which system of belief do you follow or accept now?

  1. Church of England
  2. Catholic
  3. Other Christian
  4. Jewish
  5. Moslem
  6. Buddhism
  7. Hinduism
  8. Other religion
  9. Agnosticism
  10. Atheism
  11. None of these

1.6 What is your present marital status?

  1. Married once
  2. Married twice
  3. Married more often
  4. Divorced
  5. Separated
  6. Deserted
  7. Single

1.7 How many children do you have?

  1. One
  2. Two
  3. Three
  4. Four
  5. Five
  6. Six or more
  7. None

1.8 Which sex are your children?

  1. All female
  2. All male
  3. Mostly female
  4. Mostly male
  5. Half of them female, half of them male

1.9 What ages are your children?

  1. Under one year
  2. Two to five years
  3. Six to nine years
  4. Ten to fifteen years
  5. Sixteen to twenty years
  6. Over twenty years

1.10 Is your present husband/lover the natural father of your children?

  1. Yes
  2. No
  3. Of only one or some but not all

1.11 In which region do you live permanently?

  1. Northern suburbs
  2. Southern suburbs
  3. Inner city east
  4. Eastern suburbs
  5. Inner city west
  6. Western suburbs
  7. New South Wales elsewhere
  8. Other state (inc. ACT)
  9. Overseas

2. Family and childhood relationships

2.1 What is/was the relationship between your natural parents?

  1. Happily married
  2. Unhappily married
  3. Separated
  4. Divorced, neither remarried
  5. Divorced, both remarried
  6. Divorced, mother only remarried
  7. Divorced, father only remarried
  8. Mother only deceased
  9. Father only deceased
  10. Both deceased

2.2 What is/was the relationship between you and your father like?

  1. Very close
  2. Fairly close
  3. Not very close
  4. Not at all close
  5. Very distant
  6. Never really knew him

2.3 What is/was the relationship between you and your mother like?

  1. Very close
  2. Fairly close
  3. Not very close
  4. Not at all close
  5. Very distant
  6. Never really knew her

2.4 How many siblings do you have?

  1. One sister only
  2. One brother only
  3. A sister and a brother
  4. Two or more sisters only
  5. Two or more brothers only
  6. Three or more mixed siblings
  7. I am an only child

2.5 What position in your family are you?

  1. Oldest child
  2. Second oldest child
  3. Middle child
  4. Second youngest child
  5. Youngest child

2.6 What is/was the relationship between you and your siblings like?

  1. Close to all of them
  2. Close to one or some, not others
  3. Close to sister(s), not brother(s)
  4. Close to brother(s), not sister(s)
  5. Not close to any

2.7 As a child how many close friends did/do you have?

  1. Many
  2. A few
  3. Two usually
  4. One only
  5. None usually

2.8 As a teenager how many close friends did/do you have?

  1. Many
  2. A few
  3. Two usually
  4. One only
  5. Non usually

3. Present relationships

3.1 How many women friends do you have at present?

  1. Many
  2. A few
  3. Two usually
  4. One only
  5. None

3.2 If you are in a love relationship or marriage how long has this lasted?

  1. More than ten years
  2. Six to nine years
  3. Three to five years
  4. One to two years
  5. Six months to a year
  6. One to five months
  7. Less than a month
  8. Not in a relationship

3.3 With whom are you living at present?

  1. Husband and children
  2. Lover and children
  3. Husband only
  4. Lover only
  5. Children only
  6. Natal family or one parent
  7. Friends or flatmates
  8. I live alone

4. Sexual experiences

4.1 What was your first sexual experience?

  1. Children's games
  2. Children's experiments
  3. Masturbation
  4. Heavy petting
  5. Intercourse

4.2 At what age did this occur?

  1. Under seven
  2. Between seven and nine
  3. Between ten and thirteen
  4. Between fourteen and sixteen
  5. Between seventeen and twenty
  6. Over twenty

4.3 If you were molested as a child then by whom?

  1. A total stranger
  2. Someone you knew other than a relative
  3. An uncle
  4. An older brother
  5. Step father
  6. Foster father
  7. Your natural father
  8. Someone else

4.4 At what age did this occur?

  1. Under six
  2. Between five to six
  3. Between seven to nine
  4. Between ten to thirteen
  5. Between thirteen to fifteen

4.5 Within what context did you experience your first sexual intercourse?

  1. A love affair
  2. A casual encounter
  3. With a friend
  4. In marriage
  5. Incest
  6. Rape
  7. In prostitution

4.6 At what age did this occur?

  1. Under twelve
  2. Between twelve to fourteen
  3. Between fifteen to seventeen
  4. Between eighteen to twenty
  5. Between twenty-one to twenty-five
  6. Over twenty-five

4.7 As a child were you ever given money or gifts for granting sex?

  1. Yes
  2. No

4.8 how old were you when you first fell in love?

  1. Under fifteen
  2. Fifteen to seventeen
  3. Eighteen to twenty
  4. Twenty-one to twenty-five
  5. Twenty-six to thirty
  6. Thirty-one to thirty-five
  7. Over thirty-five
  8. Never been in love

4.9 Who did you first fall in love with?

  1. A man/boy more than ten years younger than you
  2. A man/boy five to ten years younger than you
  3. A man/boy less than five years younger than you
  4. A man/boy approximately the same age as you
  5. A man/boy less than five years older than you
  6. A man/boy five to ten years older than you
  7. A man/boy more than ten years older than you
  8. A woman/girl more than ten years younger than you
  9. A woman/girl five to ten years younger than you
  10. A woman/girl less than five years younger than you
  11. A woman/girl approximately the same age as you
  12. A woman/girl less than five years older than you
  13. A woman/girl five to ten years older than you
  14. A woman/girl more than ten years older than you

4.10 How long did this love affair last?

  1. Less than six months
  2. Six months to a year
  3. One to two years
  4. Three to five years
  5. Six to ten years
  6. Over ten years

4.11 What is you sexual preference now?

  1. Straight (heterosexual)
  2. Lesbian (homosexual)
  3. Bisexual

4.12 How often have you been raped?

  1. Never
  2. Once only
  3. Twice
  4. Three time
  5. Four times
  6. More than four times

4.13 Who was/were responsible for this/these?

  1. Your husband/lover
  2. A friend
  3. Someone else known to you
  4. A lone stranger
  5. A pack

4.14 How many times have you had an abortion?

  1. Never
  2. Once only
  3. Twice
  4. Three times
  5. Four times
  6. More than four times

4.15 Who was/were the father(s) on this/these occasion(s)?

  1. Your husband
  2. A lover
  3. A casual acquaintance
  4. A relative (father, brother, uncle etc.)
  5. A rapist

5. Work-related experiences

5.1 What kind of work have you done? (for prostitutes: apart from sex work)

  1. Factory work, inc. dressmaking, seamstress, etc.
  2. Service industry (e.g. barmaid, waitress)
  3. Transport (e.g. truck driving, bus driver, taxi driver, etc.)
  4. Office work (e.g. clerical, typing, secretarial)
  5. Sales work (e.g. sales representative, shop assistant)
  6. Sex industry (e.g. stripping, porn movies, Not prostitution)
  7. Theatre work (e.g acting, dancing, showgirl, set designer, etc.)
  8. Welfare, social and/or health worker
  9. Domestic work (e.g. cleaning, housemaid, Not housewife)
  10. Nursing
  11. Teaching
  12. Other profession (medicine, law, engineering, accountancy, etc.)
  13. Arts (arts, crafts, commercial art, dress designing, etc.)
  14. Manager, executive, administrator
  15. Housewife
  16. Other
  17. Have not done any other work but the present

5.2 What is the highest weekly earnings you have received (after taxation deductions) in any of thes?

  1. Less than $100
  2. $100 to $150
  3. $151 to $200
  4. $201 to $250
  5. $251 to $300
  6. $301 to $350
  7. $351 to $400
  8. $401 to $450
  9. $451 to $500
  10. $501 to $750
  11. $751 to $1000
  12. More than $1000

(Questions 5.3 to 5.16 were given to prostitutes only)

5.3 Why did you begin working on prostitution?

  1. I was unemployed at the time
  2. To support my family
  3. To support a man
  4. To support a drug habit
  5. To make more money than my present job
  6. To find freedom from homelife
  7. To find excitement in my life
  8. For sexual enjoyment/sexual experimentation
  9. To find a sexual partner/lover/companion
  10. Curiosity
  11. Other reason

5.4 How old were you when you first began prostitution?

  1. Under twelve
  2. Twelve to fifteen
  3. Sixteen to eighteen
  4. Nineteen to twenty
  5. Twenty-one to twenty-five
  6. Twenty-six to thirty
  7. Thirty-one to thirty-five
  8. Over thirty-five

5.5 What kinds of prostitutions have you worked in before the current one?

  1. Street
  2. Brothel/parlour
  3. Escort
  4. Bondage
  5. Private (call-girl)
  6. Other
  7. Have not worked in any other kind

5.6 What kind of prostitution do you work in now?

  1. Street
  2. East Sydney brothel
  3. Kings Cross parlour
  4. Suburban parlour
  5. Escort
  6. Bondage
  7. Private

5.7 If you have changed kinds of prostitution what have been your reasons?

  1. To make more money
  2. To have more control over my working
  3. Decided to give up prostitution for a while
  4. Had trouble with the boss
  5. Pressure from police or council
  6. To raise my family
  7. To work in a safer and more protected environment
  8. Just for a change
  9. Other

5.8 What is your average weekly earnings in prostitution?

  1. Under $200
  2. $201 to $300
  3. $301 to $500
  4. $501 to $750
  5. $751 to $1000
  6. $1001 to $1500
  7. $1501 to $2000
  8. $2001 to $2500
  9. $2501 to $3000
  10. $3001 to $4000
  11. $4001 to $5000
  12. Over $5000

5.9 How many hours do you work on average a week?

  1. Six to twelve hours (one or two days)
  2. Twelve to twenty-four hours (two or three days)
  3. Twenty-four to thirty-six hours (three to six days)
  4. Thirty-six to forty-eight hours (four to seven days)
  5. Forty-eight to sixty hours (five to seven days)
  6. Sixty to seventy-two hours (six to seven days)
  7. Seventy-two to eighty-four hours (seven days)
  8. More than eighty-four hours

5.10 What kinds of services do you offer?

  1. Hand relief
  2. Full French (fellatio)
  3. "Sex" (intercourse) only
  4. Part French and "Sex"
  5. Greek (anal intercourse)
  6. Kissing
  7. Fantasy without bondage
  8. Light bondage
  9. Medium bondage with "Sex"
  10. Medium bondage without "Sex"
  11. Heavy bondage with "Sex"
  12. Heavy bondage without "Sex"
  13. Lesbian acts
  14. Threesomes (or doubles)
  15. Buck's parties
  16. Sexual surrogate (medico-therapeutic)
  17. Other

5.11 What kinds of service will you not do?

  1. Hand relief
  2. Full French (fellatio)
  3. "Sex" (intercourse) only
  4. Part French and "Sex"
  5. Greek (anal intercourse)
  6. Kissing
  7. Fantasy without bondage
  8. Light bondage
  9. Medium bondage with "Sex"
  10. Medium bondage without "Sex"
  11. Heavy bondage with "Sex"
  12. Heavy bondage without "Sex"
  13. Lesbian acts
  14. Threesomes (or doubles)
  15. Buck's parties
  16. Sexual surrogate (medico-therapeutic)
  17. Other

5.12 How many times have you been raped whilst working?

  1. Never
  2. Once only
  3. Twice
  4. Three times
  5. Four times
  6. Five times
  7. Six times
  8. Seven times
  9. More than seven times

5.13 How many times have you been bashed, knifed or otherwise assaulted?

  1. Never
  2. Once only
  3. Twice
  4. Three times
  5. Four times
  6. Five times
  7. Six times
  8. Seven times
  9. More than seven times

5.14 What precautionary measures do you take to protect yourself?

  1. Never work in a house alone
  2. Never do car jobs
  3. Check "Ugly Mug" list before going on an escort
  4. Carry a concealed weapon
  5. Use self-defence tactics
  6. Carry small aero-spray can to squirt in attacker's eyes
  7. Have a protector nearby (e.g. hired sitter, boyfriend)
  8. Pretend a protector is in the house
  9. Other

5.15 What are the things you like about prostitution?

  1. The amount of money I can make
  2. The extent of personal freedom I have
  3. The flexible work hours
  4. Helps me understand certain things about myself
  5. Challenging work
  6. Exciting work
  7. Good companionship among workers
  8. Sexual fulfilment
  9. Good for my ego
  10. Opportunity for meeting men
  11. Other

5.16 What are the things you dislike about prostitution?

  1. Having sex with men I do not like
  2. Having sex with strangers
  3. Boredom
  4. Problems with the boss
  5. Problems with police
  6. Hassles with the council
  7. Hassles with clients
  8. Violence
  9. Bitchiness among workers
  10. Having to pay out half my earnings to the parlour
  11. The stigma of being a prostitute
  12. Other

(Questions 5.17 to 5.19 were given to health-workers and students only)

5.17 Have you ever considered prostitution?

  1. On numerous occasions
  2. On some occasions
  3. Rarely
  4. Never

5.18 If you have worked in prostitution, why?

  1. I was unemployed at the time
  2. To support my family
  3. To support my man
  4. To support a drug habit
  5. To make more money than my present job
  6. To find freedom from homelife
  7. To find excitement in my life
  8. For sexual enjoyment/sexual experimentation
  9. To find a sexual partner/lover/companion
  10. Curiosity
  11. Other reason

5.19 If you haven't worked in prostitution, why do you suppose other women have?

  1. Loneliness
  2. Seeking love or affection
  3. Low self-esteem
  4. Punishing men
  5. Nymphomania (overt or covert)
  6. Sublimated lesbianism
  7. Delinquent childhood and early adolescence
  8. Peer pressure (influenced by friends and/or social group
  9. Manipulation by pimps
  10. Drug addiction
  11. Mercenary reasons (wishing for more money)
  12. Economic necessity
  13. Escape from a mundane existence or homelife pressures
  14. Other reason(s)

(Questions 6.1 to 6,8 were given to prostitutes only)

6. Client descriptions

6.1 How many clients do you average a week?

  1. Less than six
  2. Six to twenty
  3. Twenty-one to thirty
  4. Thirty-one to forty
  5. Forty-one to fifty
  6. Fifty-one to sixty
  7. Sixty-one to seventy
  8. Seventy-one to eighty
  9. Eighty-one to ninety
  10. Ninety-one to one hundred
  11. More than one hundred

6.2 How many of these would you describe as regulars?

  1. Less than 10%
  2. 10% to 20%
  3. 21% to 30%
  4. 31% to 40%
  5. 41% to 50%
  6. 51% to 60%
  7. 61% to 70%
  8. 71% to 80%
  9. 81% to 90%
  10. 91% to 100%

6.3 How often are you attracted to a client?

  1. Never
  2. Rarely
  3. Now and again
  4. Frequently
  5. All the time

6.4 Have you ever developed a relationship with a client?

  1. Never
  2. Have had dates with clients
  3. Had a love affair with one or more clients
  4. Have moved into a live-in situation with a client
  5. Have married a client

6.5 What percentage of your clients would you say are married?

  1. None of them
  2. About a quarter or less
  3. About a third
  4. About half
  5. About two-thirds
  6. About three-quarters or more
  7. All or nearly all

6.6 From which social class do they mainly come?

  1. Strictly working class
  2. Mostly working class
  3. Equally working and middle classes
  4. Mostly middle class
  5. Strictly middle class
  6. Middle and upper classes
  7. Indeterminate mixture of all classes

6.7 Which three of these services are most requested by your clients?

  1. Hand relief
  2. Full French (fellatio)
  3. "Sex" (intercourse) only
  4. Part French and "Sex"
  5. Greek (anal intercourse)
  6. Kissing
  7. Fantasy jobs
  8. Bondage
  9. Lesbian acts
  10. Other

6.8 What percentage of services requested by your clients are bondage and fantasy jobs?

  1. None
  2. Less than 10%
  3. 10% to 30%
  4. 31% to 50%
  5. 51% to 75%
  6. Over 75%

7. Legal history

7.1 Have you ever been in a children's or been seen by a district officer for any of the following?

  1. Uncontrollable child
  2. In moral danger
  3. Theft, stealing of shoplifting
  4. Possession of drugs
  5. Prostitution
  6. Other
  7. Never

7.2 How many times have you been placed in a children's detention centre?

  1. Never
  2. Once only
  3. Twice
  4. Three times
  5. Four times
  6. More than four times

7.3 Have you ever been arrested for any of the following adult charges?

  1. Theft, stealing or shoplifting
  2. Malicious wounding, manslaughter or murder
  3. A drug offence (possession or supplying
  4. Offensive behaviour
  5. Fraud
  6. Prostitution
  7. Other
  8. Never been arrested

7.4 How often have you been arrested for a prostitution related offence?

  1. Never
  2. Once only
  3. Two to five times
  4. Six to ten times
  5. Eleven to twenty times
  6. Twenty-one to fifty times
  7. Fifty-one to one hundred times
  8. One hundred and one to two hundred times
  9. Two hundred and one to five hundred times
  10. Five hundred and one to one thousand times
  11. More than one thousand times

7.5 How many times have you been in gaol?

  1. Never
  2. Once only
  3. Twice
  4. Three times
  5. Four times
  6. More than four times

7.6 Have you ever known the police to do any of the following

  1. Maltreat you or others
  2. Demand "freebies" of you or others
  3. Demand a "weigh-in" (money or goods) from you or others
  4. Plant drugs on you or others
  5. I do not know of the police being involved in any of these

8. Drug history

8.1 How many cigarettes do you smoke a day?

  1. None
  2. Less than ten
  3. Ten to twenty
  4. Twenty-one to thirty
  5. Thirty-one to forty
  6. Forty-one to sixty
  7. More than sixty

8.2 How often do you drink alcohol?

  1. Never
  2. Very occasionally
  3. At least once a month
  4. More than once a month but less than once a week
  5. Once a week
  6. Every couple of days
  7. At least once a day
  8. More than once a day

8.3 Which of the following marijuana products do you consume regularly?

  1. Grass
  2. Hashish
  3. Bong
  4. Buddha sticks
  5. Cannabis tea
  6. None

8.4 Which of the following do you take regularly?

  1. Amyl
  2. "Speed" (amphetamines)
  3. LSD (acid or "trips")
  4. Barbies or "downers" (e.g. Amytal. Nembutal, Tropinal, Seconal)
  5. Modecate
  6. "Seras" (Serapax)
  7. Mogodon
  8. Valium
  9. Mandrax
  10. Other "pills"
  11. I do not use any of these

8.5 How frequently do you use heroin?

  1. Never
  2. Once in a while
  3. About once a month
  4. More than once a month, less than once a week
  5. Once a week
  6. More than once a week, less than once a day
  7. Once a day
  8. More than once a day

8.6 How frequently do you use cocaine?

  1. Never
  2. Once in a while
  3. About once a month
  4. More than once a month, less than once a week
  5. Once a week
  6. More than once a week, less than once a day
  7. Once a day
  8. More than once a day

8.7 Do you take any of the following regularly?

  1. Morphine
  2. Methadone
  3. Pethidine
  4. Fortral
  5. I do not take any of these

8.8 Which of the following have you taken in the past if you do not use them now?

  1. Tobacco
  2. Alcohol
  3. Cannabis products
  4. Amyl products
  5. "Speed" (amphetamines)
  6. LSD (acid, trip, etc.)
  7. Pills (barbies, Modecate, Serapax, Mogodon, Mandrax, Valium, etc.)
  8. Heroin
  9. Cocaine
  10. Other
  11. I have never taken any of these regularly

8.9 At what age did you first begin using drugs (inc. alcohol and tobacco)?

  1. Under twelve
  2. Twelve to fifteen
  3. Sixteen to eighteen
  4. Nineteen to twenty
  5. Twenty-one to twenty-five
  6. Twenty-six to thirty
  7. Over thirty
  8. Never taken any drugs at any age

8.10 What effect has prostitution had on your drug habit? (prostitutes only)

  1. My habit has increased since I began prostitution
  2. My habit has decreased since I began prostitution
  3. My habit has remained steady since I began prostitution
  4. Never had a habit

9. Sexual health history

9.1 Which of the following diseases/infections have you had?

  1. Gonorrhoea
  2. Syphilis
  3. Herpes
  4. Hepatitis B
  5. Chlamydia
  6. Non-specific urethitis (NSU)
  7. Trichomonas ("trich")
  8. Thrush
  9. Genital warts
  10. Lice ("crabs")
  11. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
  12. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  13. AIDS-related illness
  14. AIDS
  15. Other
  16. Never had any of these diseases

9.2 Of those diseases you have had how many have you had more than once?

  1. None
  2. One
  3. Two
  4. Three to five
  5. More than five
  6. Never had any diseases

(Questions 9.3 to 9.5 were given to prostitutes only)

9.3 Which of the following precautions do you take against STDs?

  1. Always use condoms
  2. Use condoms whenever I can
  3. Wash and douche after each job
  4. Regular check-ups (inc. pap smears and blood tests)
  5. Other precaution(s)
  6. I do not take any precautions

9.4 How frequently do you have a check up at a clinic or with a doctor?

  1. Once a week
  2. Once a fortnight
  3. Once every three weeks
  4. Once a month
  5. Regularly, but less frequently than once a month
  6. Every now and again
  7. Never

9.5 How often do you have a test for AIDS/HIV antibodies?

  1. At least once a month
  2. Less frequently than once a month
  3. Never had a test for AIDS/HIV antibodies

(Question 10.1 given to prostitutes only)

10. Future in prostitution

10.1 How much longer do you intend working in prostitution?

  1. Only for another few days or within a week
  2. Another week to a month's time
  3. Within a month to six month's time
  4. Between six months and a year's time
  5. Between a year and two year's time
  6. Between two and five year's time
  7. Between five and ten year's time
  8. As long as I can