Bryant, Willow https://www.aic.gov.au/ en Filicide offenders https://www.aic.gov.au/publications/tandi/tandi568 <span>Filicide offenders</span> <span>Wed, 2020-05-20 09:56</span> <div class="field field--name-field-author field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/brown-thea" hreflang="en">Brown, Thea</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/bricknell-samantha" hreflang="en">Bricknell, Samantha</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/bryant-willow" hreflang="en">Bryant, Willow</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/lyneham-samantha" hreflang="en">Lyneham, Samantha</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/tyson-danielle" hreflang="en">Tyson, Danielle</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/fernandez-arias-paula" hreflang="en">Fernandez Arias, Paula</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-issn field--type-string field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">ISSN</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item">0817-8542</div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-isbn field--type-string field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">ISBN</div> <div class="field--item">9781922009685</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-published-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Published Date</div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2019-02-06T12:00:00Z">06-02-2019</time> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-subject field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Subject</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/children" hreflang="und">Children</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/risk-factors" hreflang="und">Risk factors</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/homicide" hreflang="und">Homicide</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/offenders" hreflang="und">Offenders</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/family-and-domestic-violence" hreflang="und">Family and domestic violence</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/victims" hreflang="und">Victims</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/peer-reviewed" hreflang="und">Peer-reviewed</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-series field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Series</div> <div class="field--item">Trends &amp; issues in crime and criminal justice</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-series-num field--type-integer field--label-hidden field--item">568</div> <div class="field field--name-field-abstract field--type-text-long field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Abstract</div> <div class="field--item"><p>Filicide is the killing of a child by a parent or parent equivalent. Between 2000–01 and 2011–12, there were 238 incidents of filicide in Australia involving the death of 284 children. This paper examines the characteristics of custodial parents, non-custodial parents and step-parents charged with the murder or manslaughter of their children. Offender circumstances and characteristics differed according to the offender’s gender and custodial relationship with the victim. As filicide is difficult to predict, intervention strategies should focus on families with multiple risk factors and address the needs of parents as well as those of children at risk. </p> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>ISBN: 978 1 922009 68 5</p> </div> Tue, 19 May 2020 23:56:55 +0000 eZ4VoE60zqcNjNZ1YCfKVvTGPJWQq2KV 771 at https://www.aic.gov.au Co-offending among young homicide offenders in Australia https://www.aic.gov.au/publications/sb/sb12 <span>Co-offending among young homicide offenders in Australia</span> <span>Wed, 2020-05-20 09:57</span> <div class="field field--name-field-author field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/bricknell-samantha" hreflang="en">Bricknell, Samantha</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/bryant-willow" hreflang="en">Bryant, Willow</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-issn field--type-string field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">ISSN</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item">2206-7302</div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-published-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Published Date</div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2018-07-10T12:00:00Z">10-07-2018</time> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-subject field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Subject</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/homicide" hreflang="und">Homicide</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/juvenile-offenders" hreflang="und">Juvenile offenders</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/239" hreflang="und">National Homicide Monitoring Program</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-series field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Series</div> <div class="field--item">Statistical Bulletin</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-series-num field--type-integer field--label-hidden field--item">12</div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-program field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Research Program</div> <div class="field--item">NHMP</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-abstract field--type-text-long field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Abstract</div> <div class="field--item"><p>Research on young persons who commit homicide has largely focused on associative factors rather than event characteristics. This paper uses 25 years of data from the National Homicide Monitoring Program to describe the characteristics of homicide incidents perpetrated by offenders aged 10–17 years. In particular it examines if young homicide offenders are more likely to co-offend and if incident, victim and offender characteristics vary depending on whether the young person killed on their own or with others.</p> </div> </div> Tue, 19 May 2020 23:57:43 +0000 eZ4VoE60zqcNjNZ1YCfKVvTGPJWQq2KV 797 at https://www.aic.gov.au Homicide in Australia 2012–13 to 2013–14: National Homicide Monitoring Program report https://www.aic.gov.au/publications/sr/sr2 <span>Homicide in Australia 2012–13 to 2013–14: National Homicide Monitoring Program report</span> <span>Wed, 2020-05-20 10:24</span> <div class="field field--name-field-author field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/bryant-willow" hreflang="en">Bryant, Willow</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/bricknell-samantha" hreflang="en">Bricknell, Samantha</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-issn field--type-string field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">ISSN</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item">2206-7930</div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-published-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Published Date</div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2017-06-18T12:00:00Z">18-06-2017</time> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-subject field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Subject</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/homicide" hreflang="und">Homicide</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/239" hreflang="und">National Homicide Monitoring Program</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/victims" hreflang="und">Victims</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/offenders" hreflang="und">Offenders</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/statistics" hreflang="und">Statistics</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-series field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Series</div> <div class="field--item">Statistical Report</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-series-num field--type-integer field--label-hidden field--item">2</div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-program field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Research Program</div> <div class="field--item">NHMP</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-abstract field--type-text-long field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Abstract</div> <div class="field--item"><p>In the 25th year of the National Homicide Monitoring Program (NHMP) data collection, this report describes the nature and context of homicides that occurred in financial years 2012–13 and 2013–14, and trends in homicide victimisation and offending since 1989–90. Although much of the data are presented in the aggregate, certain figures for each financial year are provided to aid the monitoring of trends. Ongoing monitoring of homicide locates short-term changes within a longer timeframe, and allows policymakers and law enforcement personnel to identify changes in risk markers associated with incidents, victims and offenders. The overall number of homicide incidents continues to decline. In 2013–14, the homicide incident rate reached a historical low of one per 100,000 people since the NHMP data collection began in 1989–90.</p> </div> </div> Wed, 20 May 2020 00:24:05 +0000 eZ4VoE60zqcNjNZ1YCfKVvTGPJWQq2KV 1491 at https://www.aic.gov.au Indigenous and non-Indigenous homicide in Australia https://www.aic.gov.au/publications/rip/rip37 <span>Indigenous and non-Indigenous homicide in Australia</span> <span>Wed, 2020-05-20 10:29</span> <div class="field field--name-field-author field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/cussen-tracy" hreflang="en">Cussen, Tracy</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/bryant-willow" hreflang="en">Bryant, Willow</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-issn field--type-string field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">ISSN</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item">1836-9111</div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-published-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Published Date</div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2015-05-05T12:00:00Z">05-05-2015</time> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-subject field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Subject</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/indigenous" hreflang="und">Indigenous</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/homicide" hreflang="und">Homicide</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/239" hreflang="und">National Homicide Monitoring Program</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/comparisons" hreflang="und">Comparisons</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-series field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Series</div> <div class="field--item">Research in practice</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-series-num field--type-integer field--label-hidden field--item">37</div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-program field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Research Program</div> <div class="field--item">NHMP</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Indigenous people (Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians) are disproportionately victims and offenders in homicide incidents both in relation to their relative proportion of the Australian population and in comparison with their non-Indigenous counterparts. In 2011–12, Indigenous people comprised three percent of the Australian population (ABS 2009; ABS 2012) yet constituted 13 percent of homicide victims (n=35) and 11 percent of homicide offenders (n=32; Bryant &amp; Cussen 2015). The rate of both victimisation and offending by Indigenous people was approximately five times higher than that of non-Indigenous people (Bryant &amp; Cussen 2015).</p> <p>Available research suggests that victims and offenders may be exposed to, or experience, a number of vulnerabilities that increase the likelihood they will be involved in a violent offence and further, that these factors may be more pronounced for Indigenous people. Research undertaken by Wundersitz (2010), Bryant (2009) and Bryant and Willis (2008) has linked substance abuse, personal history (such as sexual abuse as a child), housing mobility, and social stressors (such as witnessing violence, gambling addiction, mental illness or serious accident) to an increase in offending and victimisation risk. A previous comparative analysis of Indigenous and non-Indigenous homicides in Australia (Mouzos 2001) also identified that the majority of Indigenous homicides occurred between family members in the context of domestic conflict.</p> <p>This paper describes selected characteristics of Indigenous and non-Indigenous homicides as recorded within the AIC’s National Homicide Monitoring Program (NHMP) from 1 July 1989 to 30 June 2012. Over this time period, the NHMP has recorded:</p> <ul> <li>6,744 homicide incidents (1,096 involving at least one Indigenous person);</li> <li>7,217 victims (of whom 951 or 13% were Indigenous people); and</li> <li>7,599 identified offenders (of whom 1,234 or 16% were Indigenous).</li> </ul> <p>Both the total number of victims and offenders is greater than the total number of homicide incidents over the 23 year period because some incidents involve multiple offenders and/or the death of multiple victims.</p> <p>Homicides contained within the NHMP are reported to the AIC by police services and data are augmented with information from the National Coronial Information System, media reports and/or publicly available sentencing remarks from relevant court proceedings. Victim and offender Indigenous status is principally identified by the police and is likely derived from subjective assessments based on appearance and/or offender self-reported status. It is therefore likely that the number of victims and offenders identified as Indigenous within the NHMP is under-estimated and this limitation should be considered with reference to the data presented in this report. It should also be noted that there were 1,126 homicides (17%) where the Indigenous status of victims and/or offenders was not recorded.</p> <h2>Incident level analysis</h2> <p>Table 1 depicts the distribution of homicide incidents by the Indigenous status of offenders and victims. It shows that an Indigenous person was involved (as an offender or victim) in 16 percent (n=1,096) of homicides. Seventy percent (n=765) of these homicides involved both an Indigenous offender and an Indigenous victim. Of the 4,853 (72%) homicides involving a non-Indigenous person (as an offender or victim), 93 percent involved a non-Indigenous offender and a non-Indigenous victim.</p> <table class="table"> <caption>Table 1: Distribution of homicide incidents according to the Indigenous status of offenders and victims, 1989–90 to 2011–12</caption> <tbody> <tr> <th> </th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Indigenous offender on Indigenous victim</td> <td>765</td> <td>11</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Indigenous offender on non-Indigenous victim</td> <td>230</td> <td>3</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Non-Indigenous offender on Indigenous victim</td> <td>101</td> <td>2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Non-Indigenous offender on non-Indigenous victim</td> <td>4,522</td> <td>67</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unknown/not stated/missing</td> <td>1,126</td> <td>17</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Total</td> <td>6,744</td> <td> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Source: AIC NHMP 1989–90 to 2011–12 [computer file]</p> <p>Over the 23 years of recorded data within the NHMP, 73 percent (n=4,946) of all incidents involved a single victim and offender. Homicides involving Indigenous people rarely involved multiple victims or offenders. Over 90 percent of Indigenous homicides (where both the victim and offender were Indigenous) (93%; n=708), and 86 percent (n=947) of all homicide incidents that involved at least one Indigenous person, were single victim/offender homicides (see Table 2).</p> <p>Although rare, it is important to note that incidents involving more than one victim or offender are more difficult to classify by the relationship between the parties involved. Within the NHMP, the relationship between any victim/offender pairing is ranked and classified according to the ‘closeness’ of the relationship (see Bryant &amp; Cussen 2015 for further detail). For example, if a person is murdered by their intimate partner and close friend, the homicide would be categorised as an intimate partner homicide. All homicides that involve intimate partners or other family members are broadly categorised as domestic homicides.</p> <p>Comparatively, Indigenous homicides were more likely to involve intimate partners and other family members. Of the 765 incidents identified as Indigenous, 67 percent (n=511; see Table 2) were classified as domestic homicides. This compares to 26 percent of homicides that involved either an Indigenous victim or offender (but not both) and 44 percent (n=1,977) of non-Indigenous homicides.</p> <p>Homicides occurred across numerous settings but primarily in a home setting whether that was the home of the victim, offender or another person. Overall, since 1 July 1989, almost half (48%) of all homicide incidents (n=3,230) have taken place within the victim’s home and a further 13 percent (n=888) occurred in the offender’s home (not shared with the victim) or other home. Indigenous homicides occurred less frequently in a home setting (41%; n=317) than non-Indigenous homicides (51%; n=2,325).</p> <p>Homicides involving Indigenous people were more likely than non-Indigenous homicides to occur in public/open spaces. Almost one in five (19%; n=143) of Indigenous homicides occurred in open areas such as public parks/bush land or waterways, compared with seven percent of non-Indigenous homicides (n=329).</p> <table class="table"> <caption>Table 2: Selected incident characteristics by victim/offender Indigenous status, 1989–90 to 2011–12<sup>a</sup></caption> <tbody> <tr> <th>Characteristic</th> <th colspan="2">Indigenous victim and offender (n=765)</th> <th colspan="2">Inter-racial (Indigenous victim OR offender) (n=331)</th> <th colspan="2">Non-Indigenous victim and offender (n=4,522)</th> </tr> <tr> <th> </th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="7">Plurality of victims/offenders in incidents</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Multiple victims</td> <td>9</td> <td>1</td> <td>10</td> <td>3</td> <td>221</td> <td>5</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Multiple offenders</td> <td>46</td> <td>6</td> <td>82</td> <td>25</td> <td>656</td> <td>15</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Multiple victims/ offenders</td> <td>2</td> <td>&lt;1</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>39</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Single victim/offender</td> <td>708</td> <td>93</td> <td>239</td> <td>72</td> <td>3,606</td> <td>80</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unspecified offenders or offender not identified</td> <td>n/a</td> <td>n/a</td> <td>n/a</td> <td>n/a</td> <td>n/a</td> <td>n/a</td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="7">Incident classification</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Domestic</td> <td>511</td> <td>67</td> <td>85</td> <td>26</td> <td>1,977</td> <td>44</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Friend/Acquaintance</td> <td>242</td> <td>32</td> <td>142</td> <td>43</td> <td>1,946</td> <td>43</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Stranger</td> <td>12</td> <td>2</td> <td>104</td> <td>31</td> <td>599</td> <td>13</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unknown/unspecified</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="7"><span>Location</span></th> </tr> <tr> <td>Victim home</td> <td>317</td> <td>41</td> <td>117</td> <td>35</td> <td>2,325</td> <td>51</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Other home<sup>b</sup></td> <td>124</td> <td>16</td> <td>39</td> <td>12</td> <td>647</td> <td>14</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Health/mental care facility<sup>c</sup></td> <td>3</td> <td>&lt;1</td> <td>2</td> <td>1</td> <td>38</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Retail/recreation establishment<sup>d</sup></td> <td>14</td> <td>2</td> <td>26</td> <td>8</td> <td>247</td> <td>5</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Public transport<sup>e</sup></td> <td>9</td> <td>1</td> <td>11</td> <td>3</td> <td>112</td> <td>2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Workplace/School</td> <td>1</td> <td>&lt;1</td> <td>1</td> <td>&lt;1</td> <td>56</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Street/road/Highway</td> <td>115</td> <td>15</td> <td>67</td> <td>20</td> <td>484</td> <td>11</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Sporting oval/facility</td> <td>8</td> <td>1</td> <td>5</td> <td>2</td> <td>19</td> <td>&lt;1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Open area/waterway</td> <td>143</td> <td>19</td> <td>37</td> <td>11</td> <td>329</td> <td>7</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Other<sup>f</sup></td> <td>25</td> <td>3</td> <td>25</td> <td>8</td> <td>238</td> <td>5</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unknown</td> <td>6</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>&lt;1</td> <td>27</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="7">Presence of alcohol use</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Alcohol use by both victim and offender indicated</td> <td>532</td> <td>70</td> <td>142</td> <td>43</td> <td>1,015</td> <td>22</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Alcohol use by victim indicated</td> <td>30</td> <td>4</td> <td>34</td> <td>10</td> <td>312</td> <td>7</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Alcohol use by offender indicated</td> <td>76</td> <td>10</td> <td>43</td> <td>13</td> <td>432</td> <td>10</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Alcohol use by neither victim nor offender indicated<sup>g</sup></td> <td>127</td> <td>17</td> <td>112</td> <td>34</td> <td>2,761</td> <td>61</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>a: excludes 1,126 incidents where the Indigeneity of the victim, offender or both was unknown</p> <p>b: includes offender home and other home</p> <p>c: includes hospitals and psychiatric facilities</p> <p>d: includes shopping malls and recreation/food venues</p> <p>e: includes car parks and public transportation connected facilities</p> <p>f: includes private motor vehicles and prisons</p> <p>g: includes incidents where alcohol use was recorded as ‘no’ and ‘unknown’</p> <p>Source: AIC NHMP 1989–90 to 2011–12 [computer file]</p> <p>NHMP data on alcohol involvement within homicide incidents relies on two sources:</p> <ol> <li>a toxicology report identifying the presence of alcohol in the victim at the time of death (accessed by the AIC through the National Coronial Information System); and</li> <li>police assessment of whether the offender was ‘under the influence’ at the time of the incident (derived from data collection templates completed by police for the AIC)</li> </ol> <p>The conclusions that can be drawn regarding an indication of the alcohol use by the victim, offender, or both, at the time of a homicide incident are limited. The effect of alcohol (including the level of intoxication) on the victim or offender is unknown, therefore the contribution of alcohol to the events that led to the homicide cannot be ascertained. Conclusions are also limited because the results presented may be an underestimate. First, offender alcohol use is based on the subjective assessment of police and is frequently recorded as ‘unknown’. Second, whether the police record alcohol use and/or the threshold for being ‘under the influence’ will be subject to recording practices and definitions which may vary between jurisdictions. The data presented in Table 2 and Figure 1 relate to alcohol use by the principal victim and principal offender in each incident only.</p> <p>However, even with these limitations, the use of alcohol by both victims and offenders appears to be a risk factor for homicide. Since 1989, alcohol use by both victims and offenders prior to the incident has been identified in 26 percent (n=1,726) of homicide incidents. Seventy percent (n=532) of Indigenous homicides were recorded as involving alcohol use by both victims and offenders, as were 43 percent (n=142) of homicides involving at least one Indigenous person (see Table 2). This compares with non-Indigenous homicides where 22 percent (n=1015) were characterised by alcohol use by both victims and offenders. Alcohol use prior to the homicide incident was far more frequently indicated for Indigenous victims (69%) and offenders (72%) than for non-Indigenous victims (27%) and offenders (31%) (see Table 3 and Table 4). Data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (see for example, AIHW 2011a; AIHW 2011b) has consistently shown that Indigenous Australians are no more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to consume alcohol, but when they do, they are more likely to do so in harmful amounts. Again, although the effect of alcohol on the victims and offenders is unknown, it is possible that both parties may have been intoxicated at the time of the incident.</p> <p>Trend analyses were conducted to assess the change, over time, in the proportion of incidents that indicated alcohol use by both victims and offenders (see Figure 1). The results indicated that over the 23 years from 1989–90 the proportion of incidents involving alcohol use by Indigenous victims and offenders or by non-Indigenous victims and offenders has remained relatively stable, while the proportion of incidents that involved alcohol use by victims and offenders in inter-racial (involving both Indigenous and non-Indigenous individuals) homicides has declined.</p> <p>Figure 1: Alcohol use by both victims and offenders in homicide incidents by victim/offender Indigenous status (% and trend line), 1989–90 to 2011–12</p> <p><img alt="" src="/sites/default/files/publications/rip/images/rip37-figure_01.png" /></p> <p>Source: AIC NHMP 1989–90 to 2011–12 [computer file]</p> <h2>Victim and offender characteristics</h2> <p>Within the NHMP Indigenous status was not recorded for 207 (3%) victims and 420 (6%) offenders. For the purpose of this analysis, victims and offenders whose Indigenous status was unknown were excluded from the final analysis population.</p> <p>Both Indigenous and non-Indigenous victims of homicide were more likely to be male than female (see Table 3), however, the proportion that were female was slightly higher in the Indigenous victims population than among non-Indigenous victims (41% cf. 35%). Indigenous victims were on average five years younger (mean=31) than non-Indigenous victims (mean=36). Similarly, both Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders (88% cf. 80%) were more likely to be male. Indigenous offenders were, on average, three years younger (<span>mean</span>=29) than non-Indigenous (<span>mean</span>=32) offenders (see Table 4); a finding that is consistent with Australian population data which shows that Indigenous people are typically younger than their non-Indigenous counterparts.</p> <p>It has already been noted that a majority of incidents involving Indigenous people involved family members. Intimate partner homicides involving both an Indigenous victim and offender were almost double the proportion of non-Indigenous intimate partner homicides (38% cf. 20%) but similar for homicides involving other family members (20% cf. 17%) (see Figure 2). Further examination by victim sex identified that the proportion of Indigenous male victims of domestic/family homicide was double that of non-Indigenous men (44% cf. 22%). Over three-quarters (78%; n=304) of all female Indigenous victims compared with almost two-thirds (64%; n=1,374) of all female non-Indigenous victims were victims of domestic/family homicides.</p> <p>The apparent cause of death of victims has, historically, been most frequently attributed to a wound resulting from the use of a knife or other sharp instrument by the offender. Analysis by victim Indigenous status revealed that stab wounds contributed to the death of almost half (49%; n=466) of Indigenous victims compared with almost one-third (31%; n=1,858) of non-Indigenous victims. Gun shot wounds were far less likely to contribute to the death of Indigenous homicide victims (n=42; 4%) than they were to the death of non-Indigenous homicide victims (n=1,313; 22%).</p> <table class="table"> <caption>Table 3: Selected victim characteristics by victim indigenous status, 1989–90 to 2011–12<sup>a</sup></caption> <tbody> <tr> <th> </th> <th colspan="2">Indigenous</th> <th colspan="2">Non-Indigenous</th> </tr> <tr> <th> </th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> <td>951</td> <td> </td> <td>6,059</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="5">Sex</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Unknown</td> <td>2</td> <td>&lt;1</td> <td>1</td> <td>&lt;1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Male<sup>b</sup></td> <td>560</td> <td>59</td> <td>3,908</td> <td>65</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Intimate partner</td> <td>108</td> <td>19</td> <td>286</td> <td>7</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Other family</td> <td>139</td> <td>25</td> <td>586</td> <td>15</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Friend or acquaintance</td> <td>201</td> <td>36</td> <td>1,371</td> <td>35</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Stranger</td> <td>35</td> <td>6</td> <td>396</td> <td>10</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Other relationship<sup>c</sup></td> <td>42</td> <td>8</td> <td>731</td> <td>18</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unknown</td> <td>35</td> <td>6</td> <td>538</td> <td>14</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Female<sup>b</sup></td> <td>389</td> <td>41</td> <td>2,150</td> <td>35</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Intimate partner</td> <td>251</td> <td>65</td> <td>952</td> <td>44</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Other family</td> <td>53</td> <td>14</td> <td>422</td> <td>20</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Friend or acquaintance</td> <td>37</td> <td>10</td> <td>241</td> <td>11</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Stranger</td> <td>13</td> <td>3</td> <td>70</td> <td>3</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Other relationship<sup>c</sup></td> <td>12</td> <td>3</td> <td>218</td> <td>10</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unknown</td> <td>23</td> <td>40</td> <td>247</td> <td>11</td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="5">Age group</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Under 1</td> <td>21</td> <td>2</td> <td>173</td> <td>3</td> </tr> <tr> <td>1–9</td> <td>39</td> <td>4</td> <td>343</td> <td>6</td> </tr> <tr> <td>10–14</td> <td>14</td> <td>1</td> <td>94</td> <td>2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>15–17</td> <td>33</td> <td>3</td> <td>173</td> <td>3</td> </tr> <tr> <td>18–24</td> <td>195</td> <td>21</td> <td>850</td> <td>14</td> </tr> <tr> <td>25–34</td> <td>278</td> <td>29</td> <td>1,320</td> <td>22</td> </tr> <tr> <td>35–49</td> <td>281</td> <td>30</td> <td>1,673</td> <td>28</td> </tr> <tr> <td>50–64</td> <td>67</td> <td>7</td> <td>854</td> <td>14</td> </tr> <tr> <td>65 and over</td> <td>8</td> <td>1</td> <td>515</td> <td>9</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unknown</td> <td>15</td> <td>2</td> <td>64</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Mean age</td> <td>31</td> <td> </td> <td>36</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="5">Apparent cause of death</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Gunshot wound</td> <td>42</td> <td>4</td> <td>1,313</td> <td>22</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Stab wound</td> <td>466</td> <td>49</td> <td>1,858</td> <td>31</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Beating</td> <td>338</td> <td>36</td> <td>1,516</td> <td>25</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Drug overdose (administered by offender)</td> <td>2</td> <td>&lt;1</td> <td>69</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Drowning/submersion</td> <td>7</td> <td>1</td> <td>88</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Strangulation/suffocation</td> <td>17</td> <td>2</td> <td>546</td> <td>9</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Poisoning</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>49</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Smoke inhalation/Burns</td> <td>10</td> <td>1</td> <td>143</td> <td>2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Other<sup>d</sup></td> <td>51</td> <td>5</td> <td>311</td> <td>5</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unknown</td> <td>18</td> <td>2</td> <td>166</td> <td>3</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Presence of alcohol in victim at time of death</td> <td>655</td> <td>69</td> <td>1,635</td> <td>27</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>a: excludes victims whose Indigenous status was unknown or not recorded</p> <p>b: relationship breakdown excludes victims where relationship status or sex was unknown</p> <p>c: includes employer/employee, relationship rivals etc</p> <p>d: includes electrocution and hanging</p> <p>Source: AIC NHMP 1989–90 to 2011–12 [computer file]</p> <p>Figure 2: Victim offender relationship by Indigenous status (%), 1989–90 to 2011–12</p> <p><img alt="" src="/sites/default/files/publications/rip/images/rip37-figure_02.png" /></p> <p>Source: AIC NHMP 1989–90 to 2011–12 [computer file]</p> <table class="table"> <caption>Table 4: Selected offender characteristics by offender Indigenous status, 1989–90 to 2011–12<sup>a</sup></caption> <tbody> <tr> <th> </th> <th colspan="2">Indigenous</th> <th colspan="2">Non-Indigenous</th> </tr> <tr> <th> </th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> <td>1234</td> <td> </td> <td>5945</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="5">Sex</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Male</td> <td>985</td> <td>80</td> <td>5,241</td> <td>88</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Female</td> <td>249</td> <td>20</td> <td>703</td> <td>12</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unspecified</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>1</td> <td>&lt;1</td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="5">Age group</th> </tr> <tr> <td>10–14</td> <td>21</td> <td>2</td> <td>48</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>15–17</td> <td>105</td> <td>9</td> <td>355</td> <td>6</td> </tr> <tr> <td>18–24</td> <td>352</td> <td>29</td> <td>1,545</td> <td>26</td> </tr> <tr> <td>25–34</td> <td>406</td> <td>33</td> <td>1,790</td> <td>30</td> </tr> <tr> <td>35–49</td> <td>289</td> <td>23</td> <td>1,548</td> <td>26</td> </tr> <tr> <td>50–64</td> <td>44</td> <td>4</td> <td>476</td> <td>8</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Over 65</td> <td>3</td> <td>&lt;1</td> <td>141</td> <td>2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unspecified</td> <td>14</td> <td>1</td> <td>42</td> <td>&lt;1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Mean age</td> <td>29</td> <td> </td> <td>32</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>‘Under the influence of alcohol’ at time of incident</td> <td>887</td> <td>72</td> <td>1,874</td> <td>31</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>a: excludes offenders whose Indigenous status was unknown/not recorded.</p> <p>Source: AIC NHMP 1989–90 to 2011–12 [computer file]</p> <h2>Conclusion</h2> <p>There is currently limited research evidence on how homicide offending and victimisation risks differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people and there remains a need for further research to explore the differences between these homicides. This could ensure tailored and culturally appropriate prevention responses, as well as enhancements to victim/survivor rehabilitation and the support services for affected families. Data from the NHMP indicated a greater proportion of family homicides occurring between Indigenous people and a greater use of alcohol at the time of incidents by both Indigenous victims and offenders. As noted by Bryant (2009: 4) however, ‘no single data source is able to provide a comprehensive overview of Indigenous violent victimisation (particularly homicide) and each data source (interviews, surveys, criminal justice data) has strengths and weaknesses’. Therefore, using both qualitative and quantitative data from a variety of sources (such as administrative police and court data, interviews with offenders and the families of victims) would allow for more detailed contextual information regarding the differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous homicides.</p> <h2>References</h2> <ul> <li>Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2012. Australian Demographic Statistics. ABS cat. no. 3101.0 Canberra: ABS</li> <li>Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2009. Experimental estimates and projections, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians 1991 to 2021 series b. ABS cat. no. 3238.0 Canberra: ABS</li> <li>Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2011a. 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.</li> <li>AIHW 2011b. Substance use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.</li> <li>Bryant C &amp; Willis M 2008. Risk factors in Indigenous violent victimisation. Technical &amp; Background Paper no. 30. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. <a href="/publications/tbp/tbp030">http://aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/tbp/21-40/tbp030.html</a></li> <li>Bryant C 2009. Identifying the risks for Indigenous violent victimisation. Indigenous Justice Clearing House Research Brief no. 6. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology and Standing Council on Law and Justice. <a href="/indigenousjustice.gov.au/briefs/brief006.pdf">http://indigenousjustice.gov.au/briefs/brief006.pdf</a></li> <li>Bryant W &amp; Cussen T 2015. Homicide in Australia: 2010–11 to 2011–12: National Homicide Monitoring Program report. Monitoring report no 23. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.</li> <li>Mouzos J 2001. Indigenous and non-indigenous homicides in Australia: A comparative analysis. <span>Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice</span>, no. 210. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. <a href="/publications/tandi/tandi210">http://aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/tandi/201-220/tandi210.html</a></li> <li>Wundersitz J 2010. Indigenous perpetrators of violence: prevalence and risk factors for offending. Research and Public Policy series no 105. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. <a href="/publications/rpp/rpp105">http://aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/rpp/100-120/rpp105.html</a></li> <li> </li> </ul> <h2>Related links</h2> <ul> <li><a href="/about_aic/research_programs/nmp/0001.html">National homicide monitoring program</a></li> <li><a href="/crime_types/violence/homicide.html">Homicide</a></li> </ul> </div> Wed, 20 May 2020 00:29:54 +0000 eZ4VoE60zqcNjNZ1YCfKVvTGPJWQq2KV 1632 at https://www.aic.gov.au Domestic/family homicide in Australia https://www.aic.gov.au/publications/rip/rip38 <span>Domestic/family homicide in Australia</span> <span>Wed, 2020-05-20 10:29</span> <div class="field field--name-field-author field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/cussen-tracy" hreflang="en">Cussen, Tracy</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/bryant-willow" hreflang="en">Bryant, Willow</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-issn field--type-string field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">ISSN</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item">1836-9111</div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-published-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Published Date</div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2015-05-05T12:00:00Z">05-05-2015</time> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-subject field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Subject</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/homicide" hreflang="und">Homicide</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/victims" hreflang="und">Victims</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/239" hreflang="und">National Homicide Monitoring Program</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/family-and-domestic-violence" hreflang="und">Family and domestic violence</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-series field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Series</div> <div class="field--item">Research in practice</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-series-num field--type-integer field--label-hidden field--item">38</div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-program field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Research Program</div> <div class="field--item">NHMP</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>In 2003, the Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) published a report that drew attention to the characteristics of domestic/family homicide based on the differing family relationships between victims and offenders (Mouzos &amp; Rushforth 2003). Over the 13 years of data examined for that report (ie 1 July 1989 to 30 June 2002), there were, on average, 129 domestic/family homicide victims each year (between 32 and 47 percent of all homicides annually).</p> <p>In 2001–02, the overall homicide rate was 1.8 per 100,000 population. Since then, the homicide rate has declined (1.1 per 100,000 in 2011–12), with a decrease in the number of homicides recorded across all relationship categories. The proportion of homicides that occurred between family members was 38 percent in 2011–12 (range 32%–53%, annually over the last ten years) with an average of 101 deaths in each of the preceding ten years.</p> <p>This report presents data for the period 1 July 2002 through 30 June 2012 and provides an update to Mouzos and Rushforth (2003) and supplementary data to that disseminated in the AIC’s latest National Homicide Monitoring Program (NHMP) report covering the years 2010–12 (Bryant &amp; Cussen 2015).</p> <h2>Domestic/family homicides—categorising incidents by relationship</h2> <p>The data described in this paper are drawn from the AIC’s NHMP which includes data collected from all state and territory police services regarding murders and manslaughters in each jurisdiction (excluding culpable driving causing death), as well as information collected from the National Coronial Information System (NCIS).</p> <p>Within the NHMP, domestic/family homicides are sub-classified against five relationship categories. These are:</p> <ol> <li>Intimate partner—victim and offender are current or former partners (married, defacto, boy/girlfriend);</li> <li>Filicide—victim is the child of the offender;</li> <li>Parricide—victim is the parent of the offender;</li> <li>Siblicide—victim and offender are brother/s or sister/s; and</li> <li>Other family—including nieces, uncles, cousins, grandparents.</li> </ol> <p>Categories two through four include biological, adoptive and step relatives.</p> <p>Each incident may involve more than one victim and/or offender. For incidents involving multiple victims/offenders the closest relationship between any pairing is used to categorise the incident into the hierarchical order noted above. For example, if a person is murdered by their child and nephew, the homicide would be categorised as a parricide.</p> <h2>Prevalence of domestic/family homicides and selected characteristics</h2> <p>Of the 2,631 homicide incidents documented within the NHMP dataset over the ten-year period to 30 June 2012, 1,088 (41%) were classified as domestic/family homicides and involved 1,158 victims and 1,184 offenders (see Table 1).</p> <table class="table"> <caption>Table 1: Prevalence of domestic/family homicides by incident, victim and offender number, 2002–03 to 2011–12 (n)</caption> <tbody> <tr> <th>Relationship category</th> <th>Incidents</th> <th>Victims</th> <th>Offenders</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Intimate partner</td> <td>654</td> <td>654</td> <td>704</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Filicide</td> <td>186</td> <td>238</td> <td>209</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Parricide</td> <td>128</td> <td>134</td> <td>132</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Siblicide</td> <td>37</td> <td>40</td> <td>40</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Other family</td> <td>83</td> <td>92</td> <td>99</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Total</td> <td>1,088</td> <td>1,158</td> <td>1,184</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Source: AIC NHMP 1989–90 to 2011–12 [computer file]</p> <p>Intimate partners accounted for 23 percent of <span>all </span>homicide victims recorded within the NHMP since 1 July 2003. These victims represented the majority (n=654; 56%) of victims of domestic/family homicides. Children comprised the second most frequent group of victims of domestic/family homicides (n=238; 21%), followed by parents (n=134; 12%), siblings (n=40; 3%) and other family members (who, as an aggregate, accounted for eight percent (n=92) of victims but across several family relationships). The number of victims within each relationship category has declined since 2002–03 (see Figure 1).</p> <p>Figure 1: Victims of domestic/family homicide, 2002–03 to 2011–12 (n)</p> <p><img alt="" src="/sites/default/files/publications/rip/images/rip38-figure_01.png" /></p> <p>Source: AIC NHMP 1989–90 to 2011–12 [computer file]</p> <p>On the surface, there was little to distinguish a domestic/family homicide event from other homicides or between the different domestic/family relationship homicides. An examination of general incident characteristics (see Table 2) indicated that:</p> <ul> <li>The victim’s home was the most frequently recorded incident location for homicides regardless of relationship category, although the proportion of domestic/family homicides (range 54%–88%) occurring within a home was greater than for non-domestic/family homicides (33%).</li> <li>All homicides were more likely to occur in the evening from six pm to before midnight with the exception of filicides which were more likely to occur in the afternoon from noon to six pm.</li> </ul> <p>In general, males were more likely than females to be both homicide victims and offenders; a finding that has been consistent since the NHMP commenced in 1989. Where females were involved in a homicide, they were more likely to be the victim or offender in a domestic/family, as opposed to non-domestic/family, homicide.</p> <ul> <li>The majority (60%; n=690) of victims of domestic/family homicides overall were female, although the proportion of victims that were female varied by relationship category (see Table 3). <ul> <li>Females were typically the victims in intimate partner homicides (n=488; 75%) Males were more likely to be the victims in filicides (56% <span>cf</span> 44%) and parricides (54% <span>cf </span>46%) and were far more likely to be victims of siblicides (80% <span>cf</span> 20%) or homicides involving other family relationships (70% <span>cf</span> 30%).</li> </ul> </li> <li>Males accounted for the majority of offenders in both domestic/family and non-domestic/family homicides, except filicides where females accounted for over half (52%; n=96) of offenders for this category of domestic/family homicide. Females were the offender in 23 percent (n=151) of intimate partner homicides (see Table 4).</li> </ul> <p>A consistent finding across 23 years of homicide monitoring by the AIC has been that stab wounds most frequently caused the injuries that led to death. In this analysis, both victims of domestic/family (n=447; 38%) and non-domestic/family homicides (n=551; 34%) were more likely to die as a result of stab wounds (see Table 3). Weapons of any kind were less likely to be used in filicide deaths, whose victims were more frequently recorded as having died as the result of a beating (n=51; 21%) than any other cause.</p> <table class="table"> <caption>Table 2: Overview of incident characteristics by homicide type, 2002–03 to 2011–12</caption> <tbody> <tr> <th> </th> <th colspan="2">Intimate partner</th> <th colspan="2">Filicide</th> <th colspan="2">Parricide</th> <th colspan="2">Siblicide</th> <th colspan="2">Other family</th> <th colspan="2">All other homicides</th> </tr> <tr> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> <td>654</td> <td> </td> <td>186</td> <td> </td> <td>128</td> <td> </td> <td>37</td> <td> </td> <td>83</td> <td> </td> <td>1,543</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="13">Location</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Victim home</td> <td>445</td> <td>68</td> <td>150</td> <td>81</td> <td>113</td> <td>88</td> <td>22</td> <td>59</td> <td>45</td> <td>54</td> <td>512</td> <td>33</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Other home<sup>a</sup></td> <td>72</td> <td>11</td> <td>11</td> <td>6</td> <td>4</td> <td>3</td> <td>7</td> <td>20</td> <td>11</td> <td>13</td> <td>260</td> <td>17</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Health/mental care facility<sup>b</sup></td> <td>5</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>4</td> <td>3</td> <td>1</td> <td>3</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>16</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Retail/recreation establishment<sup>c</sup></td> <td>3</td> <td>&lt;1</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>2</td> <td>2</td> <td>109</td> <td>7</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Public transport<sup>d</sup></td> <td>6</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>67</td> <td>4</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Workplace/School</td> <td>5</td> <td>1</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>2</td> <td>2</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>2</td> <td>2</td> <td>18</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Street/road/Highway</td> <td>40</td> <td>6</td> <td>3</td> <td>2</td> <td>2</td> <td>2</td> <td>3</td> <td>8</td> <td>8</td> <td>10</td> <td>333</td> <td>22</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Sporting oval/facility</td> <td>3</td> <td>&lt;1</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>18</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Open area/waterway</td> <td>50</td> <td>8</td> <td>9</td> <td>5</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>4</td> <td>11</td> <td>8</td> <td>10</td> <td>115</td> <td>7</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Other<sup>e</sup></td> <td>15</td> <td>2</td> <td>10</td> <td>5</td> <td>2</td> <td>2</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>3</td> <td>4</td> <td>68</td> <td>4</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unknown</td> <td>10</td> <td>2</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>2</td> <td>2</td> <td>27</td> <td>2</td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="13">Time</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Midnight to before 6am</td> <td>151</td> <td>23</td> <td>39</td> <td>21</td> <td>22</td> <td>17</td> <td>8</td> <td>22</td> <td>20</td> <td>24</td> <td>462</td> <td>30</td> </tr> <tr> <td>6am to before noon</td> <td>96</td> <td>15</td> <td>38</td> <td>20</td> <td>25</td> <td>20</td> <td>6</td> <td>16</td> <td>12</td> <td>14</td> <td>164</td> <td>11</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Noon to before 6pm</td> <td>121</td> <td>19</td> <td>47</td> <td>25</td> <td>23</td> <td>18</td> <td>10</td> <td>27</td> <td>21</td> <td>25</td> <td>218</td> <td>14</td> </tr> <tr> <td>6pm to before midnight</td> <td>218</td> <td>33</td> <td>42</td> <td>23</td> <td>46</td> <td>36</td> <td>13</td> <td>35</td> <td>26</td> <td>31</td> <td>567</td> <td>37</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unknown</td> <td>68</td> <td>10</td> <td>20</td> <td>11</td> <td>12</td> <td>9</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>4</td> <td>5</td> <td>132</td> <td>9</td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="13">Day of the week</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Sunday</td> <td>79</td> <td>12</td> <td>20</td> <td>11</td> <td>18</td> <td>14</td> <td>7</td> <td>20</td> <td>8</td> <td>10</td> <td>286</td> <td>19</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Monday</td> <td>102</td> <td>16</td> <td>36</td> <td>19</td> <td>16</td> <td>13</td> <td>4</td> <td>11</td> <td>6</td> <td>7</td> <td>176</td> <td>11</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Tuesday</td> <td>103</td> <td>16</td> <td>22</td> <td>12</td> <td>14</td> <td>11</td> <td>4</td> <td>11</td> <td>12</td> <td>14</td> <td>167</td> <td>11</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Wednesday</td> <td>81</td> <td>12</td> <td>25</td> <td>13</td> <td>17</td> <td>13</td> <td>2</td> <td>5</td> <td>14</td> <td>17</td> <td>176</td> <td>11</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Thursday</td> <td>95</td> <td>16</td> <td>28</td> <td>15</td> <td>26</td> <td>20</td> <td>10</td> <td>27</td> <td>16</td> <td>19</td> <td>197</td> <td>13</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Friday</td> <td>88</td> <td>13</td> <td>19</td> <td>10</td> <td>14</td> <td>11</td> <td>4</td> <td>11</td> <td>13</td> <td>16</td> <td>232</td> <td>15</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Saturday</td> <td>95</td> <td>15</td> <td>32</td> <td>17</td> <td>21</td> <td>16</td> <td>6</td> <td>16</td> <td>13</td> <td>16</td> <td>276</td> <td>18</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unknown</td> <td>11</td> <td>2</td> <td>4</td> <td>2</td> <td>2</td> <td>2</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>33</td> <td>2</td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="13">Seasons</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Summer</td> <td>179</td> <td>27</td> <td>48</td> <td>26</td> <td>27</td> <td>21</td> <td>11</td> <td>30</td> <td>24</td> <td>29</td> <td>464</td> <td>30</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Autumn</td> <td>157</td> <td>24</td> <td>34</td> <td>18</td> <td>35</td> <td>27</td> <td>4</td> <td>11</td> <td>21</td> <td>25</td> <td>366</td> <td>24</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Winter</td> <td>154</td> <td>24</td> <td>47</td> <td>25</td> <td>33</td> <td>26</td> <td>15</td> <td>41</td> <td>20</td> <td>24</td> <td>331</td> <td>21</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Spring</td> <td>162</td> <td>25</td> <td>57</td> <td>31</td> <td>32</td> <td>25</td> <td>7</td> <td>19</td> <td>18</td> <td>22</td> <td>375</td> <td>24</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unknown</td> <td>2</td> <td>&lt;1</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>7</td> <td>&lt;1</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>a: includes offender home and other home</p> <p>b: includes hospitals and psychiatric facilities</p> <p>c: includes shopping malls and recreation/food venues</p> <p>d: includes car parks and public transportation connected facilities</p> <p>e: includes private motor vehicles and corrective institutions</p> <p>Source: AIC NHMP 1989–90 to 2011–12 [computer file]</p> <table class="table"> <caption>Table 3: Overview of victim characteristics by homicide type, 2002–03 to 2011–12</caption> <tbody> <tr> <th> </th> <th colspan="2">Intimate partner</th> <th colspan="2">Filicide</th> <th colspan="2">Parricide</th> <th colspan="2">Siblicide</th> <th colspan="2">Other family</th> <th colspan="2">All other homicides</th> </tr> <tr> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> <td>654</td> <td> </td> <td>238</td> <td> </td> <td>134</td> <td> </td> <td>40</td> <td> </td> <td>92</td> <td> </td> <td>1,634</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="13">Sex</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Male</td> <td>166</td> <td>25</td> <td>132</td> <td>56</td> <td>73</td> <td>54</td> <td>32</td> <td>80</td> <td>64</td> <td>70</td> <td>1,351</td> <td>83</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Female</td> <td>488</td> <td>75</td> <td>105</td> <td>44</td> <td>61</td> <td>46</td> <td>8</td> <td>20</td> <td>28</td> <td>30</td> <td>282</td> <td>17</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unknown</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>1</td> <td>&lt;1</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>1</td> <td>&lt;1</td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="13">Age group</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Under 1</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>76</td> <td>32</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>17</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>1–9</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>122</td> <td>51</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>2</td> <td>5</td> <td>5</td> <td>5</td> <td>20</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>10–14</td> <td>1</td> <td>&lt;1</td> <td>27</td> <td>11</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>2</td> <td>2</td> <td>12</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>15–17</td> <td>12</td> <td>2</td> <td>4</td> <td>2</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>4</td> <td>10</td> <td>3</td> <td>3</td> <td>51</td> <td>3</td> </tr> <tr> <td>18–24</td> <td>83</td> <td>13</td> <td>4</td> <td>2</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>5</td> <td>13</td> <td>15</td> <td>16</td> <td>262</td> <td>16</td> </tr> <tr> <td>25–34</td> <td>158</td> <td>24</td> <td>5</td> <td>2</td> <td>4</td> <td>3</td> <td>11</td> <td>28</td> <td>12</td> <td>13</td> <td>392</td> <td>24</td> </tr> <tr> <td>35–49</td> <td>258</td> <td>39</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>31</td> <td>23</td> <td>14</td> <td>35</td> <td>21</td> <td>23</td> <td>509</td> <td>31</td> </tr> <tr> <td>50–64</td> <td>98</td> <td>15</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>48</td> <td>36</td> <td>4</td> <td>10</td> <td>19</td> <td>21</td> <td>248</td> <td>15</td> </tr> <tr> <td>65 and over</td> <td>37</td> <td>6</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>51</td> <td>38</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>15</td> <td>16</td> <td>119</td> <td>7</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unknown</td> <td>7</td> <td>1</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>4</td> <td>&lt;1</td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="13">Apparent cause of death</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Gunshot wound</td> <td>70</td> <td>11</td> <td>13</td> <td>5</td> <td>16</td> <td>12</td> <td>5</td> <td>13</td> <td>15</td> <td>16</td> <td>266</td> <td>16</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Stab wound</td> <td>276</td> <td>42</td> <td>35</td> <td>15</td> <td>73</td> <td>54</td> <td>20</td> <td>50</td> <td>43</td> <td>47</td> <td>551</td> <td>34</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Beating</td> <td>136</td> <td>21</td> <td>51</td> <td>21</td> <td>26</td> <td>19</td> <td>11</td> <td>28</td> <td>22</td> <td>24</td> <td>487</td> <td>30</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Drug overdose (administered by offender)</td> <td>10</td> <td>2</td> <td>8</td> <td>3</td> <td>2</td> <td>1</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>2</td> <td>2</td> <td>19</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Drowning/submersion</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>22</td> <td>9</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>14</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Strangulation/suffocation</td> <td>90</td> <td>14</td> <td>33</td> <td>14</td> <td>11</td> <td>8</td> <td>2</td> <td>5</td> <td>4</td> <td>4</td> <td>74</td> <td>5</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Poisoning</td> <td>5</td> <td>1</td> <td>17</td> <td>7</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>1</td> <td>&lt;1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Smoke inhalation/Burns</td> <td>19</td> <td>3</td> <td>10</td> <td>4</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>38</td> <td>2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Other<sup>a</sup></td> <td>13</td> <td>2</td> <td>38</td> <td>16</td> <td>5</td> <td>4</td> <td>2</td> <td>5</td> <td>5</td> <td>5</td> <td>117</td> <td>7</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unknown</td> <td>35</td> <td>5</td> <td>11</td> <td>5</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>67</td> <td>4</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>a: includes electrocution and hanging</p> <p>Source: AIC NHMP 1989–90 to 2011–12 [computer file]</p> <table class="table"> <caption>Table 4: Overview of offendera characteristics by homicide type, 2002–03 to 2011–12</caption> <tbody> <tr> <th> </th> <th colspan="2">Intimate partner</th> <th colspan="2">Filicide</th> <th colspan="2">Parricide</th> <th colspan="2">Siblicide</th> <th colspan="2">Other family</th> <th colspan="2">All other homicides</th> </tr> <tr> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> <td>654</td> <td> </td> <td>186</td> <td> </td> <td>128</td> <td> </td> <td>37</td> <td> </td> <td>83</td> <td> </td> <td>1,268</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="13">Sex</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Male</td> <td>503</td> <td>77</td> <td>90</td> <td>48</td> <td>103</td> <td>80</td> <td>33</td> <td>89</td> <td>72</td> <td>87</td> <td>1,198</td> <td>94</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Female</td> <td>151</td> <td>23</td> <td>96</td> <td>52</td> <td>23</td> <td>18</td> <td>4</td> <td>11</td> <td>11</td> <td>13</td> <td>65</td> <td>5</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unknown</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>2</td> <td>2</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="13">Age group</th> </tr> <tr> <td>10–14</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>10</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>15–17</td> <td>5</td> <td>1</td> <td>3</td> <td>2</td> <td>13</td> <td>10</td> <td>3</td> <td>8</td> <td>5</td> <td>6</td> <td>62</td> <td>5</td> </tr> <tr> <td>18–24</td> <td>62</td> <td>9</td> <td>43</td> <td>23</td> <td>29</td> <td>23</td> <td>6</td> <td>16</td> <td>22</td> <td>26</td> <td>332</td> <td>26</td> </tr> <tr> <td>25–34</td> <td>159</td> <td>24</td> <td>73</td> <td>39</td> <td>35</td> <td>27</td> <td>14</td> <td>38</td> <td>19</td> <td>23</td> <td>392</td> <td>31</td> </tr> <tr> <td>35–49</td> <td>265</td> <td>41</td> <td>56</td> <td>30</td> <td>34</td> <td>27</td> <td>11</td> <td>30</td> <td>22</td> <td>27</td> <td>352</td> <td>28</td> </tr> <tr> <td>50–64</td> <td>115</td> <td>18</td> <td>6</td> <td>3</td> <td>13</td> <td>10</td> <td>2</td> <td>5</td> <td>9</td> <td>11</td> <td>84</td> <td>7</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Over 65</td> <td>38</td> <td>6</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>4</td> <td>5</td> <td>21</td> <td>2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Unknown</td> <td>10</td> <td>2</td> <td>4</td> <td>2</td> <td>2</td> <td>2</td> <td>1</td> <td>3</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>15</td> <td>1</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>a: offender n relates to the primary offender in each incident. For ‘all other homicides’ category only 1268 incidents involved an identified offender</p> <p>Source: AIC NHMP 1989–90 to 2011–12 [computer file]</p> <h2>Conceptualising homicide incidents</h2> <p>Every homicide is different. The contexts of these events vary depending on several factors including the motives of offenders, precipitating events and personal characteristics of the victims and offenders. Understanding the nuances of these differences requires qualitative incident specific analysis beyond the scope of this paper. However, some additional data analysis is presented to indicate the presence, or absence, of some of these factors in domestic/family homicide incidents. The features examined were multiple victim/offender incidents, history of domestic violence between intimate partners, whether the offender was on bail prior to the incident or suicided after the incident, and drug and alcohol use by the victim and offender.</p> <p>Most domestic/family homicide incidents involved a single victim and offender (n=960; 88%) (see Table 5). Although rare, when additional victims/offenders were involved, they tended to be family members as well. From 2002–03 through 2011–12, a small number of intimate partner homicides (n=54; 8%) involved multiple victims and/or offenders. Of the 27 intimate partner homicides that involved multiple victims (including incidents with multiple victims/offenders), 23 (85%) also involved the death of one or more children and the remaining four included the deaths of other family members.</p> <p>In each of the twenty-nine filicide incidents which involved multiple victims at least one additional victim was another child. Of the seventeen filicide incidents that involved one child and multiple offenders, the additional offender was a family member and in sixteen of these incidents both parents of the child were involved. Ten parricide incidents resulted in the death of both parents of the offender.</p> <table class="table"> <caption>Table 5: Multiple victim/offender domestic/family homicide incidents by relationship category, 2002–03 to 2012–12</caption> <tbody> <tr> <th> </th> <th colspan="2">Intimate partner</th> <th colspan="2">Filicide</th> <th colspan="2">Parricide</th> <th colspan="2">Siblicide</th> <th colspan="2">Other family</th> </tr> <tr> <th> </th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Multiple victims</td> <td>25</td> <td>4</td> <td>28</td> <td>15</td> <td>10</td> <td>8</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>2</td> <td>2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Multiple offenders</td> <td>27</td> <td>4</td> <td>17</td> <td>9</td> <td>6</td> <td>5</td> <td>1</td> <td>3</td> <td>8</td> <td>10</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Multiple victims/ offenders</td> <td>2</td> <td>&lt;1</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Single victim/offender</td> <td>600</td> <td>92</td> <td>140</td> <td>75</td> <td>112</td> <td>88</td> <td>36</td> <td>97</td> <td>72</td> <td>87</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Total incidents</td> <td>654</td> <td> </td> <td>186</td> <td> </td> <td>128</td> <td> </td> <td>37</td> <td> </td> <td>83</td> <td> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Source: AIC NHMP 1989–90 to 2011–12 [computer file]</p> <p>Data analysed for this report indicated that in one-third (n=366; 34%) of domestic/family homicide incidents there was a recorded history of domestic violence which may have included a current or former protection order between the victim and offender. The proportion of incidents with a domestic violence history varied by the family relationship category from eight percent (n=3) of siblicides to 44 percent (n=289) of intimate partner homicides (see Table 6).</p> <p>The remaining analyses pertained to offender characteristics and were based on the primary offender (ie the offender with the closest relationship to the victim). It is therefore possible that additional offenders, in the rare incidents involving multiple offenders, may have been on bail, used alcohol and/or other drugs prior to the offence. They may also have suicided following the offence. A smaller proportion of primary offenders of domestic/family homicide (n=56; 5%) than non-domestic/family homicide (n=112; 9%) were on bail, parole or probation at the time of the incidents. Suicide of the offender following the homicide was more frequently recorded in domestic/family homicides, particularly those which involved the deaths of intimate partners (n=75; 11%) or children (n=29; 16%) (see Table 6).</p> <p>Alcohol and other drug use is frequently discussed in homicide literature as a potential contributing factor, however the relationship remains unclear (for example, see Dearden &amp; Payne 2009). Alcohol and drug use can alter the circumstances of the incident by affecting the judgement of the victim and/or offender or by incapacitating the victim in some way (intentionally, or not). The NHMP data identified the presence of alcohol and other drugs in a homicide incident but not the impact of their use on the victim, offender or situation. It is important to note that victim data are derived from toxicology reports accessed through the NCIS and that offender alcohol and drug use is indicated, or not, by police services during the NHMP data collection process.</p> <p>Overall, data from 2002–03 through 2011–12 indicated more use of alcohol than illicit drugs in both domestic/family and non-domestic/family homicides (see Table 6). The use of alcohol by both victims and offenders was recorded in 30 percent of non-domestic/family homicide incidents (n= 379) and 22 percent (n=239) of all domestic/family homicides (range: 1%(filicide)–46%(siblicide)).</p> <table class="table"> <caption>Table 6: Presence of additional characteristics in homicide incidents, 2002–03 through 2011–12<sup>a</sup></caption> <tbody> <tr> <th> </th> <th colspan="2">Intimate partner</th> <th colspan="2">Filicide</th> <th colspan="2">Parricide</th> <th colspan="2">Siblicide</th> <th colspan="2">Other family</th> <th colspan="2">All other homicides</th> </tr> <tr> <th> </th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> <th>n</th> <th>%</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Prior history of domestic violence</td> <td>289</td> <td>44</td> <td>41</td> <td>22</td> <td>23</td> <td>18</td> <td>3</td> <td>8</td> <td>10</td> <td>12</td> <td>n/a</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Offender on bail, parole or probation at time of incident</td> <td>40</td> <td>6</td> <td>5</td> <td>3</td> <td>6</td> <td>5</td> <td>1</td> <td>3</td> <td>4</td> <td>5</td> <td>112</td> <td>9</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Offender suicided prior to or following arrest</td> <td>75</td> <td>11</td> <td>29</td> <td>16</td> <td>5</td> <td>4</td> <td>0</td> <td>0</td> <td>2</td> <td>2</td> <td>25</td> <td>2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Incident involves presence of alcohol – victim</td> <td>226</td> <td>35</td> <td>2</td> <td>1</td> <td>30</td> <td>23</td> <td>21</td> <td>57</td> <td>25</td> <td>30</td> <td>627</td> <td>41</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Incident involves presence of alcohol – offender</td> <td>235</td> <td>36</td> <td>20</td> <td>11</td> <td>27</td> <td>21</td> <td>17</td> <td>46</td> <td>35</td> <td>42</td> <td>509</td> <td>40</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Incident involves presence of alcohol – victim &amp; offender</td> <td>180</td> <td>28</td> <td>2</td> <td>1</td> <td>17</td> <td>13</td> <td>17</td> <td>46</td> <td>23</td> <td>28</td> <td>379</td> <td>30</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Incident involves presence of drugs – victim</td> <td>122</td> <td>19</td> <td>12</td> <td>7</td> <td>10</td> <td>8</td> <td>10</td> <td>27</td> <td>13</td> <td>16</td> <td>405</td> <td>26</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Incident involves presence of drugs – offender</td> <td>78</td> <td>12</td> <td>34</td> <td>18</td> <td>16</td> <td>13</td> <td>3</td> <td>8</td> <td>5</td> <td>6</td> <td>213</td> <td>17</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Incident involves presence of drugs – victim &amp; offender</td> <td>51</td> <td>8</td> <td>4</td> <td>2</td> <td>1</td> <td>1</td> <td>3</td> <td>8</td> <td>3</td> <td>4</td> <td>102</td> <td>8</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>a: offender n relates to the primary offender in each incident. For relationship category ‘all other homicides’ only 1,268 incidents involved an identified offender</p> <p>Source: AIC NHMP 1989–90 to 2011–12 [computer file]</p> <h2>Conclusion</h2> <p>The purpose of this paper was to update Mouzos and Rushforth’s (2003) findings describing characteristics of domestic/family homicides in Australia from 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2012. In 2003, Mouzos and Rushforth concluded that policy and other strategies targeted at preventing these homicides were warranted and this remains true today. Although homicide is declining, two in five victims are killed by a family member and these victims are most commonly partners, parents and children. It is intended that these data will support and contextualise, at a national level, the findings of jurisdictional child and intimate partner death review teams that have been initiated across Australia as well as other research currently being undertaken.</p> <h2>References</h2> <ul> <li>Bryant W &amp; Cussen T 2015. Homicide in Australia: 2010–11 to 2011–12: National Homicide Monitoring report. Monitoring report series no 23. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. <a href="/publications/mr/mr23">http://aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/mr/21-40/mr23.html</a></li> <li>Dearden J &amp; Payne J 2009. Alcohol and homicide in Australia. Trends &amp; Issues in Crime &amp; Criminal Justice no. 372. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. <a href="/publications/tandi/tandi372">http://aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/tandi/361-380/tandi372.html</a></li> <li>Mouzos J &amp; Rushforth C 2003. Family homicide in Australia. Trends &amp; Issues in Crime &amp; Criminal Justice no. 255. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. <a href="/publications/tandi/tandi255">http://aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/tandi/241-260/tandi255.html</a></li> </ul> </div> Wed, 20 May 2020 00:29:55 +0000 eZ4VoE60zqcNjNZ1YCfKVvTGPJWQq2KV 1633 at https://www.aic.gov.au Homicide in Australia: 2010–11 to 2011–12: National Homicide Monitoring Program report https://www.aic.gov.au/publications/mr/mr23 <span>Homicide in Australia: 2010–11 to 2011–12: National Homicide Monitoring Program report</span> <span>Wed, 2020-05-20 10:31</span> <div class="field field--name-field-author field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/bryant-willow" hreflang="en">Bryant, Willow</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/cussen-tracy" hreflang="en">Cussen, Tracy</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-issn field--type-string field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">ISSN</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item">1836-2095</div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-isbn field--type-string field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">ISBN</div> <div class="field--item">9781922009838</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-published-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Published Date</div> <div class="field--item"><time datetime="2015-02-05T12:00:00Z">05-02-2015</time> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-subject field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Subject</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/239" hreflang="und">National Homicide Monitoring Program</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/homicide" hreflang="und">Homicide</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/victims" hreflang="und">Victims</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/offenders" hreflang="und">Offenders</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/statistics" hreflang="und">Statistics</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-series field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Series</div> <div class="field--item">Monitoring reports</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-series-num field--type-integer field--label-hidden field--item">23</div> <div class="field field--name-field-research-program field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Research Program</div> <div class="field--item">NHMP</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-abstract field--type-text-long field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Abstract</div> <div class="field--item"><p>In this National Homicide Monitoring Program (NHMP) report, the nature and context of homicides occurring throughout the 2010–11 and 2011–12 financial years are described. Although much of the data are presented in the aggregate, figures for each financial year are provided in some circumstances to aid the monitoring of trends. Ongoing monitoring of homicide locates short-term changes within a longer timeframe and enables policymakers and law enforcement personnel to identify changes in risk markers associated with incidents, victims and offenders. The results presented in this report are consistent with previous NHMP reports but demonstrate some fluctuation across various characteristics of homicide. Overall, the number of homicides generally continues to decline over time.</p> </div> </div> Wed, 20 May 2020 00:31:46 +0000 eZ4VoE60zqcNjNZ1YCfKVvTGPJWQq2KV 1672 at https://www.aic.gov.au CRG 52/14-15: Filicide in Australia, 2000-2012 A National Report https://www.aic.gov.au/crg/reports/crg-5214-15 <span>CRG 52/14-15: Filicide in Australia, 2000-2012 A National Report</span> <span>Wed, 2020-05-06 12:01</span> <div class="field field--name-field-author field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/brown-thea" hreflang="en">Brown, Thea</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/lyneham-samantha" hreflang="en">Lyneham, Samantha</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/bryant-willow" hreflang="en">Bryant, Willow</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/bricknell-samantha" hreflang="en">Bricknell, Samantha</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/tomison-adam" hreflang="en">Tomison, Adam</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/tyson-danielle" hreflang="en">Tyson, Danielle</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/author/arias-paula" hreflang="en">Arias, Paula</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/child-abuse-and-neglect-0" hreflang="en">Child abuse and neglect</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/family-and-domestic-violence-0" hreflang="en">Family and domestic violence</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/subject/homicide-0" hreflang="en">Homicide</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Filicide in Australia, 2000-2012: A National Study‘, is the first to examine filicide nationally over time, and it shows that filicide rates are not declining but were stable in the 12-year period under study. In that period some 284 victims were killed by a parent or parent equivalent, such as a step-parent, and 274 victims were children under 18. While the youngest children (under 4) are the most vulnerable, children remain victims throughout their school life and afterwards, with the oldest victim being 33 years. Most children had not ever been known to child protection. Rates varied from state to state with Victoria having the lowest incidence per capita and Queensland the highest The major categories of perpetrators were mothers, fathers, mothers and fathers acting together, step-fathers and step-fathers and mothers acting together. Step-fathers were disproportionately represented. A constellation of factors was found to be associated with perpetrators: domestic violence previously inflicted or suffered by the perpetrator, mental illness, substance abuse, partnership separation, history of child abuse and a newly identified factor, criminal history, often for violence.</p> </div> Wed, 06 May 2020 02:01:02 +0000 eZ4VoE60zqcNjNZ1YCfKVvTGPJWQq2KV 28 at https://www.aic.gov.au