Retail crime includes shoplifting, employee theft, fraud, robbery and violence to staff. Costs include loss of profitability, low staff morale, loss of work due to physical and psychological damage, and even loss of life. This manual concentrates on strategies and programs devised in a number of countries to prevent retail theft. Some are simple and inexpensive; others involve sophisticated technology and require huge outlays. The case studies included demonstrate the need to describe the problem properly before proceeding with crime prevention programs, to keep good records, and to evaluate those programs for effectiveness.