The pervasiveness of the internet and society’s reliance on it for personal and business use has brought with it many benefits. However, for those who seek to defraud others, it has also provided new ways of identifying and targeting potential victims.Online consumer fraud can take a variety of forms and can target anyone. It comes with substantial costs. The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) estimates that more than $90m was lost as a result of fraudulent activity in 2017 (ACCC 2018).This report presents the findings of a study conducted by the Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) with the support and cooperation of the ACCC’s Scamwatch staff. The study sought to determine and quantify the factors that make individuals vulnerable to consumer fraud and that lead to their victimisation.